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Wind tunnel and flight testing of Otto Lilienthal's Experimental Monoplane from 1895

Raffel, Markus and Weinhold, Pascal and Wienke, Felix and Schwarz, Clemens and Dillmann, Andreas (2022) Wind tunnel and flight testing of Otto Lilienthal's Experimental Monoplane from 1895. In: AIAA SciTech 2022 Forum, pp. 1-16. ARC. AIAA SciTech Forum 2022, 2022-01-03 - 2022-01-07, San Diego, CA, USA. doi: 10.2514/6.2022-1605. ISBN 978-162410631-6.

Full text not available from this repository.

Official URL: https://doi.org/10.2514/6.2022-1605


In 1895, Otto Lilienthal patented, built and repeatadly flew a research aircraft equipped with a set of control surfaces actuated by the pilot. It had rubber-band activated leading edge flaps for automatic pitch control, and spoilerons, wing warping and rudder for yaw and roll control, which were actuated by a hip cradle. A full-scale replica and a 1:5 model were built for this investigation. All structural materials relevant to the flying qualities, were selected with great care. The 1:5 model was tested in two different wind tunnels at the "Institute of Aerodynamics and Flow Technology" of the German Aerospace Research Center (DLR) in Göttingen, Germany. The full-scale replica was used for a set of tethered flight tests on the Outer Banks (NC) in cooperation with Kitty Hawk Kites. The wind tunnel tests gave new insights into the performance, trim state, flight stability and controllability. Based on the commonly used classification of Lilienthal's gliders the "Experimentiergerät" or in the remainder of this text "Experimental Monoplane" has a wingspan of 8.8m and a wing surface area of 23m2 (appr. 250ft2). Lilienthal wrote that those larger dimensions lead to better performance at low wind speeds compared to his previous designs, but required additional means of control, as his weight shift method provided only very limited control authority for wing spans of more than 7m. Wind tunnel measurements and a limited set of flight tests were performed in order to investigate, whether the patented automatic pitch control and the control surfaces were sufficient to control the glider.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148508/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Additional Information:AIAA 2022-1605 Session: History of Ground Testing
Title:Wind tunnel and flight testing of Otto Lilienthal's Experimental Monoplane from 1895
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Raffel, MarkusUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3340-9115133716120
Weinhold, PascalAS-HEL Dt. Zentrum für Luft und RaumfahrtUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wienke, FelixUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0081-1084UNSPECIFIED
Date:January 2022
Journal or Publication Title:AIAA SciTech 2022 Forum
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Page Range:pp. 1-16
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Keywords:Lilienthal, experimental, Monoplane, control surfaces
Event Title:AIAA SciTech Forum 2022
Event Location:San Diego, CA, USA
Event Type:international Conference
Event Start Date:3 January 2022
Event End Date:7 January 2022
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:other
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L - no assignment
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - no assignment
Location: Göttingen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute for Aerodynamics and Flow Technology > Helicopter, GO
Institute for Aerodynamics and Flow Technology > Administration AS-GO
Deposited By: Carter, Beatrice
Deposited On:01 Feb 2022 16:34
Last Modified:24 Apr 2024 20:46

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