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Detection of the tidal deformation of WASP-103b at 3 σ with CHEOPS

Barros, S. C. C. and Akinsanmi, B. and Boué, G. and Smith, Alexis M S and Laskar, J. and Ulmer-Moll, S. and Lillo-Box, J. and Queloz, D. and Cameron, A. C. and Sousa, S. G. and Ehrenreich, D. and Hooton, M. J. and Bruno, G. and Demory, B. -O. and Correia, A. C. M. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Wilson, T. G. and Bonfanti, A. and Hoyer, S. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada Escudé, G. and Barbato, D. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado, D. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Benz, W. and Bergomi, M. and Billot, N. and Bonfils, X. and Bouchy, F. and Brandeker, A. and Broeg, C. and Cabrera Perez, Juan and Cessa, V. and Charnoz, S. and Damme, C. C. V. and Davies, M.B. and Deleuil, M. and Deline, A. and Delrez, L. and Erikson, A and Fortier, A. and Fossati, L. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Muñoz, A. García and Gillon, M. and Güdel, M and Isaak, K. G. and Heng, K. and Kiss, L. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lendl, M. and Lovis, C. and Magrin, D. and Nascimbeni, V. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Olofsson, G. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Parviainen, H. and Peter, G. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Rauer, H. and Ribas, I. and Santos, N. C. and Scandariato, G. and Segransan, D. and Simon, A. E. and Steller, M. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Thomas, N. and Udry, S. and Ulmer, B. and Van Grootel, V. and Walton, N. A. (2022) Detection of the tidal deformation of WASP-103b at 3 σ with CHEOPS. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 657, A52. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202142196. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/full_html/2022/01/aa42196-21/aa42196-21.html

Abstract

Context. Ultra-short period planets undergo strong tidal interactions with their host star which lead to planet deformation and orbital tidal decay. Aims: WASP-103b is the exoplanet with the highest expected deformation signature in its transit light curve and one of the shortest expected spiral-in times. Measuring the tidal deformation of the planet would allow us to estimate the second degree fluid Love number and gain insight into the planet's internal structure. Moreover, measuring the tidal decay timescale would allow us to estimate the stellar tidal quality factor, which is key to constraining stellar physics. Methods: We obtained 12 transit light curves of WASP-103b with the CHaracterising ExOplanet Satellite (CHEOPS) to estimate the tidal deformation and tidal decay of this extreme system. We modelled the high-precision CHEOPS transit light curves together with systematic instrumental noise using multi-dimensional Gaussian process regression informed by a set of instrumental parameters. To model the tidal deformation, we used a parametrisation model which allowed us to determine the second degree fluid Love number of the planet. We combined our light curves with previously observed transits of WASP-103b with the Hubble Space Telescope (HST) and Spitzer to increase the signal-to-noise of the light curve and better distinguish the minute signal expected from the planetary deformation. Results: We estimate the radial Love number of WASP-103b to be hf = 1.59−0.53+0.45. This is the first time that the tidal deformation is directly detected (at 3 σ) from the transit light curve of an exoplanet. Combining the transit times derived from CHEOPS, HST, and Spitzer light curves with the other transit times available in the literature, we find no significant orbital period variation for WASP-103b. However, the data show a hint of an orbital period increase instead of a decrease, as is expected for tidal decay. This could be either due to a visual companion star if this star is bound, the Applegate effect, or a statistical artefact. Conclusions: The estimated Love number of WASP-103b is similar to Jupiter's. This will allow us to constrain the internal structure and composition of WASP-103b, which could provide clues on the inflation of hot Jupiters. Future observations with James Webb Space Telescope can better constrain the radial Love number of WASP-103b due to their high signal-to-noise and the smaller signature of limb darkening in the infrared. A longer time baseline is needed to constrain the tidal decay in this system.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148481/
Document Type:Article
Title:Detection of the tidal deformation of WASP-103b at 3 σ with CHEOPS
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Akinsanmi, B.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Boué, G.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Ulmer-Moll, S.Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Lillo-Box, J.Depto. de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC campus, 28692, Villanueva de la Cañada (Madrid), SpainUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, Switzerland; Cavendish Laboratory, JJ Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Cameron, A. C.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, Scotland, UKUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hooton, M. J.University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bruno, G.Physikalisches Institut,University of Bern, Sidlerstraße 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. -O.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Correia, A. C. M.CFisUC, Department of Physics, University of Coimbra, 3004-516 Coimbra, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Univ. de Provence, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKUNSPECIFIED
Bonfanti, A.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Univ. de Provence, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), Via Lactea s/n 38200, La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Anglada Escudé, G.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, CanMagrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona,SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barbato, D.Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bergomi, M.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bouchy, F.Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy , Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, JuanJuan.Cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Cessa, V.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Charnoz, S.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Damme, C. C. V.ESTEC, European Space Agency, 2201AZ, Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M.B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy & Theoretical Physics, Lund University, Box 43, SE-221 00, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Deline, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, Aanders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8041 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via Pietro Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Muñoz, A. GarcíaCenter for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenberstrasse 36, 10623, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Gillon, M.Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universitée de Liège, Allée du 6 août 17, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Güdel, MUniversity of Vienna, Dept. of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstr. 17, 1180, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.NAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofısica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, USAUNSPECIFIED
Parviainen, H.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.Gisbert.Peter (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6101-2513
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.Heike.Rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB,C/ de Can Magrans s/n, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), C/ Gran Capita 2-4, 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.INAF, Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, Gy. M.ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary ; MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, CHUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ulmer, B.Ingenieurbüro Ulmer, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.Université de Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:657
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202142196
Page Range:A52
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:planets and satellites: fundamental parameters, planets and satellites: composition, planets and satellites: interiors, planets and satellites: individual: WASP-103b, techniques: photometric, time, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:01 Feb 2022 09:15
Last Modified:03 Nov 2022 11:26

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