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Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy

Anderson, Ryan and Forni, Olivier and Cousin, Agnes and Wiens, Roger C. and Clegg, Samuel M. and Frydenvang, Jens and Gabriel, Travis S.J. and Ollila, Ann M. and Schröder, Susanne and Beyssac, Olivier and Gibbons, Erin and Vogt, David and Clavé, Elise and Manrique, Jose-Antonio and Legett, Carey and Pilleri, Paolo and Newell, Raymond T. and Sarrao, Joseph and Maurice, Sylvestre and Arana, Gorka and Benzerara, Karim and Bernardi, Pernelle and Bernard, Sylvain and Bousquet, Bruno and Brown, Adrian J. and Alvarez-Llamas, César and Chide, Baptiste and Cloutis, Edward and Comellas, Jade and Connell, Stephanie and Dehouck, Erwin and Delapp, Dorothea M. and Essunfeld, Ari and Fabre, Cecile and Fouchet, Thierry and Garcia-Florentino, Cristina and García-Gómez, Laura and Gasda, Patrick and Gasnault, Olivier and Hausrath, Elisabeth M. and Lanza, Nina and Laserna, Javier and Lasue, Jeremie and Lopez, Guillermo and Madariaga, Juan Manuel and Mandon, Lucia and Mangold, Nicolas and Meslin, Pierre-Yves and Nelson, Anthony E. and Newsom, Horton and Reyes-Newell, Adriana L. and Robinson, Scott and Rull, Fernando and Sharma, Shiv K. and Simon, Justin I. and Sobron, Pablo and Fernandez, Imanol Torre and Udry, Arya and Venhaus, Dawn and McLennan, Scott M. and Morris, Richard V. and Ehlmann, Bethany (2021) Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy. Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy, p. 106347. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.sab.2021.106347. ISSN 0584-8547.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0584854721003049

Abstract

The SuperCam instrument on the Perseverance Mars 2020 rover uses a pulsed 1064 nm laser to ablate targets at a distance and conduct laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) by analyzing the light from the resulting plasma. SuperCam LIBS spectra are preprocessed to remove ambient light, noise, and the continuum signal present in LIBS observations. Prior to quantification, spectra are masked to remove noisier spectrometer regions and spectra are normalized to minimize signal fluctuations and effects of target distance. In some cases, the spectra are also standardized or binned prior to quantification. To determine quantitative elemental compositions of diverse geologic materials at Jezero crater, Mars, we use a suite of 1198 laboratory spectra of 334 well-characterized reference samples. The samples were selected to span a wide range of compositions and include typical silicate rocks, pure minerals (e.g., silicates, sulfates, carbonates, oxides), more unusual compositions (e.g., Mn ore and sodalite), and replicates of the sintered SuperCam calibration targets (SCCTs) onboard the rover. For each major element (SiO2, TiO2, Al2O3, FeOT, MgO, CaO, Na2O, K2O), the database was subdivided into five "folds" with similar distributions of the element of interest. One fold was held out as an independent test set, and the remaining four folds were used to optimize multivariate regression models relating the spectrum to the composition. We considered a variety of models, and selected several for further investigation for each element, based primarily on the root mean squared error of prediction (RMSEP) on the test set, when analyzed at 3 m. In cases with several models of comparable performance at 3 m, we incorporated the SCCT performance at different distances to choose the preferred model. Shortly after landing on Mars and collecting initial spectra of geologic targets, we selected one model per element. Subsequently, with additional data from geologic targets, some models were revised to ensure results that are more consistent with geochemical constraints. The calibration discussed here is a snapshot of an ongoing effort to deliver the most accurate chemical compositions with SuperCam LIBS.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148172/
Document Type:Article
Title:Post-landing major element quantification using SuperCam laser induced breakdown spectroscopy
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Anderson, RyanAstrogeology Science Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Flagstaff, Arizona, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Forni, OlivierUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cousin, AgnesUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wiens, Roger C.Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Clegg, Samuel M.Los Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Frydenvang, JensUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gabriel, Travis S.J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ollila, Ann M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schröder, SusanneUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1870-3663UNSPECIFIED
Beyssac, OlivierUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gibbons, ErinUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vogt, DavidUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1109-6960UNSPECIFIED
Clavé, EliseUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Manrique, Jose-AntonioUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Legett, CareyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pilleri, PaoloUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Newell, Raymond T.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sarrao, JosephUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Maurice, SylvestreInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Arana, GorkaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Benzerara, KarimUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bernardi, PernelleUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bernard, SylvainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bousquet, BrunoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Brown, Adrian J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alvarez-Llamas, CésarUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Chide, BaptisteUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cloutis, EdwardUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Comellas, JadeUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Connell, StephanieUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dehouck, ErwinUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Delapp, Dorothea M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Essunfeld, AriUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fabre, CecileUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fouchet, ThierryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Garcia-Florentino, CristinaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
García-Gómez, LauraUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gasda, PatrickUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gasnault, OlivierInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hausrath, Elisabeth M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lanza, NinaLos Alamos National Laboratory, Los Alamos, New Mexico, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Laserna, JavierUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lasue, JeremieInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lopez, GuillermoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Madariaga, Juan ManuelUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mandon, LuciaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mangold, NicolasUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Meslin, Pierre-YvesInstitut de Recherche en Astrophysique et Planétologie, Université Paul Sabatier, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nelson, Anthony E.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Newsom, HortonUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Reyes-Newell, Adriana L.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Robinson, ScottUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rull, FernandoDepartment of Condensed Matter Physics, Crystallography and Mineralogy, Valladolid University, Valladolid, Spain.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sharma, Shiv K.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Simon, Justin I.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sobron, PabloUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fernandez, Imanol TorreUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Udry, AryaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Venhaus, DawnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
McLennan, Scott M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morris, Richard V.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ehlmann, BethanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:24 December 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Spectrochimica Acta Part B: Atomic Spectroscopy
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI:10.1016/j.sab.2021.106347
Page Range:p. 106347
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0584-8547
Status:Published
Keywords:Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy LIBS Mars Multivariate regression Regression Chemometrics Calibration
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Robotics
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R RO - Robotics
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - OptoRob [RO]
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Terahertz and Laser Spectroscopy
Deposited By: Vogt, Dr. David
Deposited On:11 Jan 2022 08:33
Last Modified:10 Jan 2024 03:00

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