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Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage

Kruse, Christopher G. and Alexander, M. Joan and Hoffmann, Lars and van Niekerk, Annelize and Polichtchouk, Inna and Bacmeister, Julio and Holt, Laura and Plougonven, Riwal and Sácha, Petr and Wright, Corwin J. and Sato, Kaoru and Shibuya, Ryosuke and Gisinger, Sonja and Ern, Manfred and Meyer, Catrin and Stein, Olaf (2022) Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. American Meteorological Society. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0252.1. ISSN 0022-4928.

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Official URL: https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/atsc/aop/JAS-D-21-0252.1/JAS-D-21-0252.1.xml


Four state-of-the-science numerical weather prediction (NWP) models were used to perform mountain wave- (MW) resolving hind-casts over the Drake Passage of a 10-day period in 2010 with numerous observed MW cases. The Integrated Forecast System (IFS) and the Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model were run at Δx ≈ 9 and 13 km globally. TheWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Met Office Unified Model (UM) were both configured with a Δx = 3 km regional domain. All domains had tops near 1 Pa (z ≈ 80 km). These deep domains allowed quantitative validation against Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) observations, accounting for observation time, viewing geometry, and radiative transfer. All models reproduced observed middle-atmosphere MWs with remarkable skill. Increased horizontal resolution improved validations. Still, all models underrepresented observed MW amplitudes, even after accounting for model effective resolution and instrument noise, suggesting even at Δx ≈ 3 km resolution, small-scale MWs are under-resolved and/or over-diffused. MWdrag parameterizations are still necessary in NWP models at current operational resolutions of Δx ≈ 10 km. Upper GW sponge layers in the operationally configured models significantly, artificially reduced MW amplitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. In the IFS, parameterized GW drags partly compensated this deficiency, but still, total drags were ≈ 6 time smaller than that resolved at Δx ≈ 3 km. Meridionally propagating MWs significantly enhance zonal drag over the Drake Passage. Interestingly, drag associated with meridional fluxes of zonal momentum (i.e. u'v') were important; not accounting for these terms results in a drag in the wrong direction at and below the polar night jet.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148139/
Document Type:Article
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Title:Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Kruse, Christopher G.CoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Alexander, M. JoanCoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hoffmann, LarsForschungszentrum Jülich, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3773-4377UNSPECIFIED
van Niekerk, AnnelizeMet Office, Exeter, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Holt, LauraCoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Plougonven, RiwalLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Sácha, PetrUniv. Prag, Tschechische RepublikUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wright, Corwin J.Centre for Space, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdohttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2496-953XUNSPECIFIED
Sato, KaoruUniversiy of Tokyo, JapanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Shibuya, RyosukeUniversity of Tokyo, JapanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gisinger, SonjaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8188-4458UNSPECIFIED
Ern, ManfredForschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), Jülich, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8565-2125UNSPECIFIED
Meyer, CatrinForschungszentrum Jülich, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stein, OlafForschungszentrum Jülich, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Publisher:American Meteorological Society
Keywords:gravity waves, mountain waves, atmospheric dynamics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Middle Atmosphere
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Transport Meteorology
Deposited By: Gisinger, Sonja
Deposited On:10 Jan 2022 15:45
Last Modified:01 Sep 2022 03:00

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