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Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage

Kruse, Christopher G. and Alexander, M. Joan and Hoffmann, Lars and van Niekerk, Annelize and Polichtchouk, Inna and Bacmeister, Julio and Holt, Laura and Plougonven, Riwal and Sácha, Petr and Wright, Corwin J. and Sato, Kaoru and Shibuya, Ryosuke and Gisinger, Sonja and Ern, Manfred and Meyer, Catrin and Stein, Olaf (2022) Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage. Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences. American Meteorological Society. doi: 10.1175/JAS-D-21-0252.1. ISSN 0022-4928.

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Official URL: https://journals.ametsoc.org/view/journals/atsc/aop/JAS-D-21-0252.1/JAS-D-21-0252.1.xml

Abstract

Four state-of-the-science numerical weather prediction (NWP) models were used to perform mountain wave- (MW) resolving hind-casts over the Drake Passage of a 10-day period in 2010 with numerous observed MW cases. The Integrated Forecast System (IFS) and the Icosahedral Nonhydrostatic (ICON) model were run at Δx ≈ 9 and 13 km globally. TheWeather Research and Forecasting (WRF) model and the Met Office Unified Model (UM) were both configured with a Δx = 3 km regional domain. All domains had tops near 1 Pa (z ≈ 80 km). These deep domains allowed quantitative validation against Atmospheric InfraRed Sounder (AIRS) observations, accounting for observation time, viewing geometry, and radiative transfer. All models reproduced observed middle-atmosphere MWs with remarkable skill. Increased horizontal resolution improved validations. Still, all models underrepresented observed MW amplitudes, even after accounting for model effective resolution and instrument noise, suggesting even at Δx ≈ 3 km resolution, small-scale MWs are under-resolved and/or over-diffused. MWdrag parameterizations are still necessary in NWP models at current operational resolutions of Δx ≈ 10 km. Upper GW sponge layers in the operationally configured models significantly, artificially reduced MW amplitudes in the upper stratosphere and mesosphere. In the IFS, parameterized GW drags partly compensated this deficiency, but still, total drags were ≈ 6 time smaller than that resolved at Δx ≈ 3 km. Meridionally propagating MWs significantly enhance zonal drag over the Drake Passage. Interestingly, drag associated with meridional fluxes of zonal momentum (i.e. u'v') were important; not accounting for these terms results in a drag in the wrong direction at and below the polar night jet.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/148139/
Document Type:Article
Additional Information:© Copyright 2022 American Meteorological Society (AMS). For permission to reuse any portion of this work, please contact permissions@ametsoc.org. Any use of material in this work that is determined to be “fair use” under Section 107 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 U.S. Code §?107) or that satisfies the conditions specified in Section 108 of the U.S. Copyright Act (17 USC § 108) does not require the AMS’s permission. Republication, systematic reproduction, posting in electronic form, such as on a website or in a searchable database, or other uses of this material, except as exempted by the above statement, requires written permission or a license from the AMS. All AMS journals and monograph publications are registered with the Copyright Clearance Center (https://www.copyright.com). Additional details are provided in the AMS Copyright Policy statement, available on the AMS website (https://www.ametsoc.org/PUBSCopyrightPolicy).
Title:Observed and Modeled Mountain Waves from the Surface to the Mesosphere Near the Drake Passage
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Kruse, Christopher G.CoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIED
Alexander, M. JoanCoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIED
Hoffmann, LarsForschungszentrum Jülich, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3773-4377
van Niekerk, AnnelizeMet Office, Exeter, UKUNSPECIFIED
Polichtchouk, InnaECMWF, Reading, UKUNSPECIFIED
Bacmeister, JulioNCAR, Boulder, CO, USAUNSPECIFIED
Holt, LauraCoRA Office, NorthWest Research Associates, Boulder, ColoradoUNSPECIFIED
Plougonven, RiwalLaboratoire de Météorologie Dynamique, Ecole Polytechnique, Palaiseau, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Sácha, PetrUniv. Prag, Tschechische RepublikUNSPECIFIED
Wright, Corwin J.Centre for Space, Atmospheric and Oceanic Science, University of Bath, Bath, United Kingdohttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2496-953X
Sato, KaoruUniversiy of Tokyo, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Shibuya, RyosukeUniversity of Tokyo, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Gisinger, SonjaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8188-4458
Ern, ManfredForschungszentrum Jülich, Institute of Energy and Climate Research, Stratosphere (IEK-7), Jülich, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8565-2125
Meyer, CatrinForschungszentrum Jülich, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Stein, OlafForschungszentrum Jülich, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2022
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of the Atmospheric Sciences
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1175/JAS-D-21-0252.1
Publisher:American Meteorological Society
ISSN:0022-4928
Status:Published
Keywords:gravity waves, mountain waves, atmospheric dynamics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Middle Atmosphere
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Transport Meteorology
Deposited By: Gisinger, Sonja
Deposited On:10 Jan 2022 15:45
Last Modified:10 Jan 2022 15:45

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