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Observation and calibration strategies for large-scale multi-beam velocity-resolved mapping of the [CII] emission in the Orion molecular cloud

Higgins, R. D. and Kabanovic, S. and Pabst, C. and Teyssier, D. and Goicoechea, J. R. and Berne, O. and Chambers, E. and Wolfire, M. and Suri, S. and Buchbender, C. and Okada, Y. and Mertens, M. and Parikka, A. and Aladro, R. and Richter, Heiko and Güsten, R. and Stutzki, J. and Tielens, A. G. G. M. (2021) Observation and calibration strategies for large-scale multi-beam velocity-resolved mapping of the [CII] emission in the Orion molecular cloud. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 652 (A77). EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039621. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2021/08/aa39621-20/aa39621-20.html

Abstract

The [CII] 158µm far-infrared fine-structure line is one of the dominant cooling lines of the star-forming interstellar medium (ISM). Hence [CII] emission originates in and thus can be used to trace a range of ISM processes. Velocity-resolved large-scale mapping of [CII] in star-forming regions provides a unique perspective of the kinematics of these regions and their interactions with the exciting source of radiation. Aims. We explore the scientific applications of large-scale mapping of velocity-resolved [CII] observations. With the [CII] observations, we investigate the effect of stellar feedback on the ISM. We present the details of observation, calibration, and data reduction using a heterodyne array receiver mounted on an airborne observatory. Methods. A 1.15 square degree velocity-resolved map of the Orion molecular cloud centred on the bar region was observed using the upGREAT heterodyne receiver flying on board the Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy (SOFIA). The data were acquired using the 14 pixels of the German REceiver for Astronomy at Terahertz Frequencies (upGREAT) that were observed in an on-the-fly mapping mode. 2.4 million spectra were taken in total. These spectra were gridded into a three-dimensional cube with a spatial resolution of 14.1 arcseconds and a spectral resolution of 0.3 km/s. Results. A square-degree [CII] map with a spectral resolution of 0.3 km s−1 is presented. The scientific potential of this data is summarized with discussion of mechanical and radiative stellar feedback, filament tracing using [CII], [CII] opacity effects, [CII] and carbon recombination lines, and [CII] interaction with the large molecular cloud. The data quality and calibration is discussed in detail, and new techniques are presented to mitigate the effects of unavoidable instrument deficiencies (e.g. baseline stability) and thus to improve the data quality. A comparison with a smaller [CII] map taken with the Herschel/Heterodyne Instrument for the Far-Infrared (HIFI) spectrometer is presented. Conclusions. Large-scale [CII] mapping provides new insight into the kinematics of the ISM. The interaction between massive stars and the ISM is probed through [CII] observations. Spectrally resolving the [CII] emission is necessary to probe the microphysics induced by the feedback of massive stars. We show that certain heterodyne instrument data quality issues can be resolved using a spline-based technique, and better data correction routines allow for more efficient observing strategies.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/147575/
Document Type:Article
Title:Observation and calibration strategies for large-scale multi-beam velocity-resolved mapping of the [CII] emission in the Orion molecular cloud
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Higgins, R. D.I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu KölnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kabanovic, S.KOSMA, Uni KölnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pabst, C.Leiden Observatory, Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Teyssier, D.Telespanzia Vega UK Ltd. For ESA/ESACUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Goicoechea, J. R.Insitituto des Fisica Fundamental, MadridUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Berne, O.CNRS, ToulouseUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Chambers, E.USRAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wolfire, M.University of MarylandUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Suri, S.MPIfA, HeidelbergUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Buchbender, C.I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu KölnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Okada, Y.I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu KölnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mertens, M.I. Physikalisches Institut der Universität zu KölnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Parikka, A.NASA Ames Research CenterUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Aladro, R.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, BonnUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Richter, HeikoUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Güsten, R.Max-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, Bonn, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stutzki, J.KOSMA, I.Physikalisches Institut der Universität Köln, Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tielens, A. G. G. M.Leiden Observatory, Leiden UniversityUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:12 August 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:652
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202039621
Publisher:EDP Sciences
Series Name:Interstellar and circumstellar matter
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:Instrumentation: spectrometer, ISM: structure, ISM: photon-dominated region (PDR), ISM: bubbles , ISM: individual (Orion), Methods: observational, Far-infrared: ISM
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Terahertz spectrometer for atomic oxygen in the mesosphere/thermosphere
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Terahertz and Laser Spectroscopy
Deposited By: Richter, Dr.rer.nat. Heiko
Deposited On:16 Dec 2021 08:28
Last Modified:16 Dec 2021 08:28

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