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Direct reduction of iron ores: From a porous solid model to CFD simulations

Fradet, Quentin and Ali, Mohammed Liaket and Riedel, Uwe (2021) Direct reduction of iron ores: From a porous solid model to CFD simulations. In: 30. Deutscher Flammentag - für nachhaltige Verbrennung (30), pp. 297-305. 30. Deutscher Flammentag, 28.-29. Sep. 2021, Hannover-Garbsen / Online.

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Abstract

With an average annual production of 45 million tons, Germany is one of the world's largest steel producers. On the reverse side, the iron and steel industry constitutes the major industrial source of CO2. The emissions related to this industry in Germany amounted to 37.9 million tons CO2-eq in 2018. Two-thirds of the iron is produced in blast furnaces, using coke and coal to reduce iron ores. An alternative iron-making route, the Direct Reduction (DR) of iron ores, is gaining interest. The reducing gas typically used is natural gas, but syngas from biogenic resources or pure hydrogen can also be used. The direct reduction with green hydrogen can reduce the CO2 emission by 95 % compared to the blast furnace process. The conversion rate of single iron ore pellets to iron in DR processes has been extensively investigated. Simple conversion models can deliver transport and reaction parameters, which can further be used in Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations of industrial-scale reactors for design or optimization purposes. However, this transition from a base-model to CFD cases is not apparent. On the one hand, because of the range of availability of the base-model. External and internal transport limitations are often lumped in the reaction term. This explains the disparateness of reaction rate parameters proposed in the literature. On the other hand, because of fundamental differences. The traditional shrinking core model assumes a moving reaction front separating an unreacted core and a fully converted region. This assumption cannot be properly declined for finite-volume methods, which relies on the discretization of the domain. The present study will focus on achieving a reliable transition from a porous solid model (i.e., the base-model) to CFD simulations. To this end, both the base-model and the CFD-model will be applied to the same experimental data sets describing the reduction of single pellets. The base-model has a low computational cost and can therefore be used to derive kinetic and transport data, which is further usable in the CFD-model. The CFD simulations solve for the whole computational domain, and thus, can in turn deliver accurate boundary conditions for the base-model. It will be verified that identical input parameters lead to almost identical results in both, the base-model and the CFD-model. The possible sources of discrepancies will be investigated, such as deviations in the symmetry hypothesis.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/145999/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Direct reduction of iron ores: From a porous solid model to CFD simulations
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Fradet, QuentinQuentin.Fradet (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4968-8494
Ali, Mohammed LiaketMohammed.Ali (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Riedel, UweUwe.Riedel (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:28 September 2021
Journal or Publication Title:30. Deutscher Flammentag - für nachhaltige Verbrennung
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Page Range:pp. 297-305
Editors:
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iD
Dinkelacker, FriedrichLeibniz Universität Hannover, ITVUNSPECIFIED
Pitsch, HeinzInstitute for Combustion Technology, Aachen University, Templergraben 64, D-52056 Aachen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Scherer, ViktorUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Status:Published
Keywords:Direct Reduction, Iron Ore, CFD
Event Title:30. Deutscher Flammentag
Event Location:Hannover-Garbsen / Online
Event Type:national Conference
Event Dates:28.-29. Sep. 2021
Organizer:Deutsche Vereinigung für Verbrennungsforschung e.V.
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Materials and Technologies for the Energy Transition
HGF - Program Themes:High-Temperature Thermal Technologies
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E SP - Energy Storage
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Low-Carbon Industrial Processes
Location: Cottbus , Zittau
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes > Simulation and Virtual Design
Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes > Low-Carbon Reducing Agents
Deposited By: Fradet, Dr. Quentin
Deposited On:16 Dec 2021 16:37
Last Modified:16 Dec 2021 16:37

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