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The changing face of AU Mic b: stellar spots, spin-orbit commensurability, and transit timing variations as seen by CHEOPS and TESS

Szabó, Gy. M. and Gandolfi, D. and Brandeker, A. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Garai, Z. and Billot, N. and Broeg, C. and Ehrenreich, D. and Fortier, A. and Fossati, L. and Hoyer, S. and Kiss, L. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Ribas, I. and Alibert, Y. and Alonso, R. and Anglada Escudé, G. and Bàrczy, T. and Barros, S. C. C. and Barrado, D. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, M. and Beck, T. and Bekkelien, A. and Bonfils, X. and Benz, W. and Borsato, L. and Busch, M. -D. and Cabrera Perez, Juan and Charnoz, S. and Collier Cameron, A. and Van Damme, C. Corral and Davies, M. B. and Delrez, L. and Deleuil, M. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Demory, B. -O. and Erikson, A and Fridlund, M. and Futyan, D. and Garcia Munoz, A. and Gillon, M. and Guedel, M. and Guterman, P. and Heng, K. and Isaak, K. G. and Lacedelli, G. and Laskar, J. and Lendl, M. and Lovis, C. and Luntzer, A. and Magrin, D. and Nascimbeni, V. and Olofsson, G. and Osborn, H. P. and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Peter, G. and Piazza, D. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Queloz, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Rauer, H. and Santos, N. C. and Scandariato, G. and Segransan, D. and Serrano, L. M. and Sicilia, D. and Simon, A. E. and Smith, Alexis M S and Sousa, S. G. and Steller, M. and Thomas, N. and Udry, S. and Van Grootel, V. and Walton, N. A. and Wilson, T. G. (2021) The changing face of AU Mic b: stellar spots, spin-orbit commensurability, and transit timing variations as seen by CHEOPS and TESS. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 654, A159. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202140345. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2021/10/aa40345-21/aa40345-21.html

Abstract

AU Mic is a young planetary system with a resolved debris disc showing signs of planet formation and two transiting warm Neptunes near mean-motion resonances. Here we analyse three transits of AU Mic b observed with the CHaracterising ExOPlanet Satellite (CHEOPS), supplemented with sector 1 and 27 Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS) photometry, and the All-Sky Automated Survey from the ground. The refined orbital period of AU Mic b is 8.462995 ± 0.000003 d, whereas the stellar rotational period is Prot = 4.8367 ± 0.0006 d. The two periods indicate a 7:4 spin-orbit commensurability at a precision of 0.1%. Therefore, all transits are observed in front of one of the four possible stellar central longitudes. This is strongly supported by the observation that the same complex star-spot pattern is seen in the second and third CHEOPS visits that were separated by four orbits (and seven stellar rotations). Using a bootstrap analysis we find that flares and star spots reduce the accuracy of transit parameters by up to 10% in the planet-to-star radius ratio and the accuracy on transit time by 3-4 min. Nevertheless, occulted stellar spot features independently confirm the presence of transit timing variations (TTVs) with an amplitude of at least 4 min. We find that the outer companion, AU Mic c, may cause the observed TTVs.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/145445/
Document Type:Article
Title:The changing face of AU Mic b: stellar spots, spin-orbit commensurability, and transit timing variations as seen by CHEOPS and TESS
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Szabó, Gy. M.ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary ; MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, 9700, Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universitá di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy , Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Sz.szilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698
Garai, Z.ELTE Eötvös Loránd University, Gothard Astrophysical Observatory, 9700 Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary; MTA-ELTE Exoplanet Research Group, 9700 Szombathely, Szent Imre h. u. 112, Hungary; Astronomical Institute, Slovak Academy of Sciences, 0596https://orcid.org/0000-0001-9483-2016
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, C.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, A.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8041 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Laboratoire d’Astrophysique de Marseille, Univ. de Provence, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institute d´Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Instituto de Ciencias des Espacio, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/via Lactea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Anglada Escudé, G.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, CanMagrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d’Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034 Barcelona,SpainUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6271-0110
Beck, M.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bekkelien, A.Observatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, Chemin Pegasi 51, 1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physikalisches Institut,University of Bern, Sidlerstraße 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Borsato, L.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, Italyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8627-9628
Busch, M. -D.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, JuanJuan.Cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Charnoz, S.Institut de Physique du Globe, Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Collier Cameron, A.SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UKUNSPECIFIED
Van Damme, C. CorralESTEC, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2201, AZ Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d’Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France; Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. -O.Center for Space and Habitability, Gesellsschaftstrasse 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, Aanders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Futyan, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Garcia Munoz, A.Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1756-4825
Gillon, M.Institut d'Astrophysique et de Géophysique, Universitée de Liège, Allée du 6 août 17, B-4000 Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Guedel, M.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Guterman, P.Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Lacedelli, G.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei", Universià degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, Italy; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, UMR8028 CNRS, Observatoire de Paris, PSL Univ.,Sorbonne Univ., 77 av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, M.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Luntzer, A.Department of Astrophysics, University of ViennaUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF, Astronomical Institute, Padua, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Nascimbeni, V.NAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, Padova, IT-35122, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Department of Astronomy, Stockholm University, AlbaNova University Center, 10691 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Osborn, H. P.NCCR/PlanetS, Centre for Space & Habitability, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.Dept. of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Peter, G.Gisbert.Peter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Piazza, D.Physics Institute, Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Cavendish Laboratory, J J Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.Heike.Rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.NAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Serrano, L. M.instituto de astrofísica e ciências do espaço, universidade do porto, caup, rua das estrelas, 4150-762 porto, portugalUNSPECIFIED
Sicilia, D.INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Physikalisches Institut, Uni Bern Siedlerstrasse, Bern, 3012 SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Observatoire de Genève, Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.Université de Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Walton, N. A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8749-1962
Date:2021
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:654
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/202140345
Page Range:A159
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science, R - Project CHEOPS
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Space Instruments
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:10 Nov 2021 11:23
Last Modified:10 Nov 2021 11:23

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