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In situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraft

Gałkowski, Michał and Jordan, Armin and Rothe, Michael and Marshall, Julia and Koch, Frank-Thomas and Chen, Jinxuan and Agusti-Panareda, Anna and Fix, Andreas and Gerbig, Christoph (2021) In situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraft. Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT), 14 (2), pp. 1525-1544. Copernicus Publications. doi: 10.5194/amt-14-1525-2021. ISSN 1867-1381.

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.5194/amt-14-1525-2021

Abstract

The intensive measurement campaign CoMet 1.0 (Carbon Dioxide and Methane Mission) took place during May and June 2018, with a focus on greenhouse gases over Europe. CoMet 1.0 aimed at characterising the distribution of CH4 and CO2 over significant regional sources with the use of a fleet of research aircraft as well as validating remote sensing measurements from state-of-the-art instrumentation installed on board against a set of independent in situ observations. Here we present the results of over 55 h of accurate and precise in situ measurements of CO2, CH4 and CO mole fractions made during CoMet 1.0 flights with a cavity ring-down spectrometer aboard the German research aircraft HALO (High Altitude and LOng Range Research Aircraft), together with results from analyses of 96 discrete air samples collected aboard the same platform. A careful in-flight calibration strategy together with post-flight quality assessment made it possible to determine both the single-measurement precision as well as biases against respective World Meteorological Organization (WMO) scales. We compare the result of greenhouse gas observations against two of the available global modelling systems, namely Jena CarboScope and CAMS (Copernicus Atmosphere Monitoring Service). We find overall good agreement between the global models and the observed mole fractions in the free tropospheric range, characterised by very low bias values for the CAMS CH4 and the CarboScope CO2 products, with a mean free tropospheric offset of 0 (14) nmol/mol and 0.8 (1.3) µmol /mol respectively, with the numbers in parentheses giving the standard uncertainty in the final digits for the numerical value. Higher bias is observed for CAMS CO2 (equal to 3.7 (1.5) µmol /mol), and for CO the model-observation mismatch is variable with height (with offset equal to -1.0 (8.8) nmol/mol). We also present laboratory analyses of air samples collected throughout the flights, which include information on the isotopic composition of CH4, and we demonstrate the potential of simultaneously measuring delta-13C-CH4 and delta-2H-CH4 from air to determine the sources of enhanced methane signals using even a limited number of discrete samples. Using flasks collected during two flights over the Upper Silesian Coal Basin (USCB, southern Poland), one of the strongest methane-emitting regions in the European Union, we were able to use the Miller-Tans approach to derive the isotopic signature of the measured source, with values of delta-2H equal to -224.7 (6.6) per mille and delta-13C to -50.9 (1.1) per mille, giving significantly lower delta-2H values compared to previous studies in the area.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/144196/
Document Type:Article
Title:In situ observations of greenhouse gases over Europe during the CoMet 1.0 campaign aboard the HALO aircraft
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Gałkowski, MichałDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany; Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, Kraków, PolandUNSPECIFIED
Jordan, ArminDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Rothe, MichaelDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Marshall, JuliaDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2648-128X
Koch, Frank-ThomasDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, Germany; Meteorological Observatory Hohenpeissenberg, Deutscher Wetterdienst, Hohenpeissenberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Chen, JinxuanDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Agusti-Panareda, AnnaEuropean Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts, Reading, UKUNSPECIFIED
Fix, AndreasDLR, IPAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2818-9290
Gerbig, ChristophDepartment of Biogeochemical Systems, Max Planck Institute for Biogeochemistry, Jena, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:26 February 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Atmospheric Measurement Techniques (AMT)
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:14
DOI :10.5194/amt-14-1525-2021
Page Range:pp. 1525-1544
Publisher:Copernicus Publications
ISSN:1867-1381
Status:Published
Keywords:CoMet, Upper Silesia Coal Basin, HALO, isotopic signatures, methane, carbon dioxide, methane, carbon monoxide
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Atmospheric and climate research
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Lidar
Deposited By: Marshall, Julia
Deposited On:05 Oct 2021 11:26
Last Modified:05 Oct 2021 11:26

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