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E Layer Dominated Ionosphere Occurrences as a Function of Geophysical and Space Weather Conditions

Kamal, Sumon and Jakowski, Norbert and Hoque, Mohammed Mainul and Wickert, Jens (2020) E Layer Dominated Ionosphere Occurrences as a Function of Geophysical and Space Weather Conditions. Remote Sensing. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/rs12244109. ISSN 2072-4292.

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Abstract

At some locations, especially in the auroral regions, the ionization of the E layer can dominate over that of the F2 layer, which is called the E layer dominated ionosphere (ELDI). In the present work we investigate the spatiotemporal variation of the ELDI depending on the season, solar activity, geomagnetic activity, interplanetary magnetic field, convection electric field, and solar wind energy. We specify each distribution of ELDI events by the values of four parameters. In this regard, we compute the height, full width at half maximum, and position of a Gaussian function relative to a precomputed reference ellipse as parameters to describe the spatial distribution of ELDI events in geocentric latitude/longitude coordinates. To study the temporal variation of the ELDI events, we estimate the weighted mean local time of the distribution as the fourth parameter. The database used for our investigations contains more than 3.5 million vertical electron density profiles derived from ionospheric GPS radio occultation observations on board the COSMIC/FORMOSAT-3 (Constellation Observing System for Meteorology, Ionosphere, and Climate/Formosa Satellite Mission 3) mission, covering a period of almost 13 years. The analysis of observations representing changing geophysical conditions results in clear trends for all ELDI parameters. In this context, the mean local time varies mostly between 01:00 and 02:00 local time, while the probability of ELDI occurrence is increased in local winter and in the case of low solar activity. Likewise, an increase in the solar wind parameters increases the number of ELDI events and leads to an equatorward shift of their position. The relationships found in our investigations can serve as a basis for future modeling studies addressing ELDI occurrences as a function of selected geophysical quantities.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/142885/
Document Type:Article
Title:E Layer Dominated Ionosphere Occurrences as a Function of Geophysical and Space Weather Conditions
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Kamal, SumonSumon.Kamal (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6756-9803
Jakowski, NorbertNorbert.Jakowski (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3174-2624
Hoque, Mohammed MainulMainul.Hoque (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5134-4901
Wickert, JensGeoForschungsZentrum Potsdamhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7379-5276
Date:2020
Journal or Publication Title:Remote Sensing
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.3390/rs12244109
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
ISSN:2072-4292
Status:Published
Keywords:polar ionosphere; E layer; radio science; GPS radio occultation; space weather; particle precipitation
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Solar-Terrestrial Physics SO, R - Ionosphere
Location: Neustrelitz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute for Solar-Terrestrial Physics > Space Weather Observation
Deposited By: Kamal, Sumon
Deposited On:09 Jul 2021 15:19
Last Modified:09 Jul 2021 15:19

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