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CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: a fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii

Bonfanti, A. and Delrez, L. and Hooton, M. J. and Wilson, T. G. and Fossati, L. and Alibert, Y. and Hoyer, S. and Mustill, A. J. and Osborn, H. P. and Adibekyan, V. and Gandolfi, D. and Salmon, S. and Sousa, S. G. and Tuson, A and Van Grootel, V. and Cabrera Perez, Juan and Nascimbeni, V. and Maxted, P. F. L. and Barros, S. C. C. and Billot, N. and Bonfils, X. and Borsato, L. and Broeg, Chris and Davies, M. B. and Deleuil, M. and Demangeon, O. D. S. and Fridlund, M. and Lacedelli, G. and Lendl, M and Persson, C. and Santos, N. C. and Scandariato, G. and Szabó, Gy. M. and Collier Cameron, A. and Udry, S. and Benz, W. and Beck, M. and Ehrenreich, David and Fortier, Andrea and Isaak, K. G. and Queloz, D. and Alonso, R. and Asquier, J. and Bandy, T. and Bàrczy, T. and Barrado, D. and Barragán, O. and Baumjohann, W. and Beck, T. and Bekkelien, A. and Bergomi, M. and Brandeker, A. and Busch, M.-D. and Cessa, Virginie and Charnoz, S. and Chazelas, Bruno and Corral Van Damme, C. and Demory, B. O. and Erikson, A and Farinato, J. and Futyan, D. and Garcia Munoz, A. and Gillon, M. and Guedel, M. and Guterman, P. and Hasiba, J and Heng, K. and Hernandez, E. and Kiss, L. and Kuntzer, T. and Laskar, J. and Lecavelier des Etangs, A. and Lovis, C. and Magrin, D. and Malvasio, L. and Marafatto, L. and Michaelis, H. and Munari, M. and Olofsson, G. and Ottacher, H and Ottensamer, R. and Pagano, I. and Palle, E. and Peter, Gisbert and Piazza, D. and Piotto, G. and Pollacco, D. and Ragazzoni, R. and Rando, N. and Ratti, F. and Rauer, H and Ribas, I. and Rieder, M. and Rohlfs, R. and Safa, F. and Salatti, M. and Segransan, D. and Simon, A. E. and Smith, Alexis M S and Sordet, M. and Steller, M. and Thomas, N. and Tschentscher, M. and Van Eylen, V. and Viotto, V. and Walter, Ingo and Walton, NA and Wildi, F. and Wolter, D. (2021) CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: a fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 646, A157. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039608. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Abstract

Context. The detection of a super-Earth and three mini-Neptunes transiting the bright (V = 9.2 mag) star HD 108236 (also known as TOI-1233) was recently reported on the basis of TESS and ground-based light curves. Aims: We perform a first characterisation of the HD 108236 planetary system through high-precision CHEOPS photometry and improve the transit ephemerides and system parameters. Methods: We characterise the host star through spectroscopic analysis and derive the radius with the infrared flux method. We constrain the stellar mass and age by combining the results obtained from two sets of stellar evolutionary tracks. We analyse the available TESS light curves and one CHEOPS transit light curve for each known planet in the system. Results: We find that HD 108236 is a Sun-like star with R⋆ = 0.877 ± 0.008 R⊙, M⋆ = 0.869-0.048+0.050 M⊙, and an age of 6.7-5.1+4.0 Gyr. We report the serendipitous detection of an additional planet, HD 108236 f, in one of the CHEOPS light curves. For this planet, the combined analysis of the TESS and CHEOPS light curves leads to a tentative orbital period of about 29.5 days. From the light curve analysis, we obtain radii of 1.615 ± 0.051, 2.071 ± 0.052, 2.539-0.065+0.062, 3.083 ± 0.052, and 2.017-0.057+0.052 R⊕ for planets HD 108236 b to HD 108236 f, respectively. These values are in agreement with previous TESS-based estimates, but with an improved precision of about a factor of two. We perform a stability analysis of the system, concluding that the planetary orbits most likely have eccentricities smaller than 0.1. We also employ a planetary atmospheric evolution framework to constrain the masses of the five planets, concluding that HD 108236 b and HD 108236 c should have an Earth-like density, while the outer planets should host a low mean molecular weight envelope. Conclusions: The detection of the fifth planet makes HD 108236 the third system brighter than V = 10 mag to host more than four transiting planets. The longer time span enables us to significantly improve the orbital ephemerides such that the uncertainty on the transit times will be of the order of minutes for the years to come. A comparison of the results obtained from the TESS and CHEOPS light curves indicates that for a V ~ 9 mag solar-like star and a transit signal of ~500 ppm, one CHEOPS transit light curve ensures the same level of photometric precision as eight TESS transits combined, although this conclusion depends on the length and position of the gaps in the light curve.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/141813/
Document Type:Article
Title:CHEOPS observations of the HD 108236 planetary system: a fifth planet, improved ephemerides, and planetary radii
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Bonfanti, A.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Delrez, L.Institut d Astrophysique et de Geophysique, Universite de Liege, Allee du 6 Aout, 17, Bat. B5C, Liege 1, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Hooton, M. J.University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, T. G.School of Physics and Astronomy, St. Andrews, UKUNSPECIFIED
Fossati, L.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, A-8042 Graz, Austriahttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4426-9530
Alibert, Y.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern;Observatoire de Besançon, Institut UTINAM, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Hoyer, S.Aix-Marseille Universite, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Mustill, A. J.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Osborn, H. P.NCCR/PlanetS, Centre for Space & Habitability, University of Bern, Bern, Switzerland; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Adibekyan, V.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Salmon, S.STAR, Université de Liège, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, S. G.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Tuson, AAstrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge, CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Van Grootel, V.Université de Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, JuanJuan.Cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Nascimbeni, V.Dipartimento di Fisica ed Astronomia, Universitá degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Maxted, P. F. L.Astrophysics Group, Keele University, Staffordshire ST5 5BG, UKUNSPECIFIED
Barros, S. C. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Billot, N.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bonfils, X.Institut de Planétologie et d'Astrophysique, University of Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Borsato, L.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia, Universita degli Studi di Padova, via Marzolo 8, 35131 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Broeg, ChrisUniversity of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Davies, M. B.Lund Observatory, Department of Astronomy and Theoretical Physics, Lund University, 22100, Lund, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, M.Aix Marseille Universite, CNRS, LAM (Laboratoire d Astrophysique de Marseille) UMR 7326, 13388, Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, O. D. S.Aix Marseille Univ, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseille, France; Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands | Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Lacedelli, G.Dipartimento di Fisica e Astronomia "Galileo Galilei", Universià degli Studi di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 3, 35122, Padova, Italy; INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122, Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, MObservatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C.Department of Earth and Space Sciences, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Santos, N. C.Instituto de Astrofisica e Ciencias do Espaco, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Rua das Estrelas, 4150-762 Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Fisica e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Scandariato, G.NAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Szabó, Gy. M.Department of Experimental Physics & Astronomical Observatory, University of Szeged, Szeged, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Collier Cameron, A.SUPA, School of Physics and Astronomy, University of St. Andrews, North Haugh, Fife KY16 9SS, UKUNSPECIFIED
Udry, S.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, 51 Chemin des Maillettes, 1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Benz, W.Physikalisches Institut,University of Bern, Sidlerstraße 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Beck, M.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Ehrenreich, DavidUniversity of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Fortier, AndreaUniversity of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Isaak, K. G.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, D.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/via Lactea s/n, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Asquier, J.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Bandy, T.Physikalisches Institut,University of Bern, Sidlerstraße 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bàrczy, T.Admatis, Miskolc, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barragán, O.Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Oxford, OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Baumjohann, W.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Beck, T.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bekkelien, A.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Bergomi, M.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Brandeker, A.Department of Astronomy – Stockholm University, SE-106 91 Stockholm, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Busch, M.-D.Physikalisches Institut, Universität Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Cessa, VirginieUniversity of Berne, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Charnoz, S.Institut de Physique du Globe de Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Chazelas, BrunoObservatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Corral Van Damme, C.ESA/ESTEC, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Demory, B. O.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, Aanders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Farinato, J.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Futyan, D.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Garcia Munoz, A.Zentrum fuer Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitaet Berlin, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1756-4825
Gillon, M.Institut d’Astrophysique, Geophysique et Oceanographie, Universite de Liege, B-4000 Liege, BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Guedel, M.University of Vienna, Department of Astrophysics, Türkenschanzstrasse 17, 1180, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Guterman, P.Laboratoire d'Astrophysique de Marseille, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Hasiba, JSpace Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Heng, K.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, Gesellschaftsstraße 6, 3012, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hernandez, E.Center for Space and Habitability, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Kiss, L.Konkoly Observatory, Research Centre for Astronomy and Earth, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Kuntzer, T.Observatoire de Genève, University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Laskar, J.IMCCE, Obs. de ParisUNSPECIFIED
Lecavelier des Etangs, A.Institut d Astrophysique de Paris, CNRS, UMR 7095 & Sorbonne Universites, UPMC Paris 6, 98 bis bd Arago, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Lovis, C.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Magrin, D.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Malvasio, L.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Marafatto, L.INAF - Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell'Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Michaelis, H.harald.michaelis (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Munari, M.INAF - Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S. Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Olofsson, G.Stockholm University, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Ottacher, HSpace Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Ottensamer, R.Dept. of Astrophysics, University of Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Pagano, I.INAF – Osservatorio Astrofisico di Catania, Via S.Sofia 78, 95123 Catania, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofısica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, USAUNSPECIFIED
Peter, Gisbertgisbert.peter (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6101-2513
Piazza, D.Physics Institute, Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Piotto, G.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, vicolo dell Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, D.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry, CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ragazzoni, R.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Rando, N.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Ratti, F.ESA/ESTEC, Noordwijk, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, Hheiker.rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB,C/ de Can Magrans s/n, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), C/ Gran Capita 2-4, 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Rieder, M.Physics Institute, Space Research & Planetary Sciences, University of Bern, Sidlerstr. 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Rohlfs, R.Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Safa, F.ESTEC, European Space Agency, Keplerlaan 1, 2201, AZ Noordwijk, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Salatti, M.Italian Space Agency, Via del Politecnico, 00133, Rome, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Segransan, D.Geneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, 1290, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Simon, A. E.Center for Space and Habitability, University of Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M SAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2386-4341
Sordet, M.Observatoire de Geneve, Universite de Geneve, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Steller, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstrasse 6, 8042, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Thomas, N.Department of Space Research and Planetology, Physikalisches Institut, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Tschentscher, M.matthias.tschentscher (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London,Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIED
Viotto, V.INAF – Osservatorio Astronomico di Padova, Vicolo dell’Osservatorio 5, 35122 Padova, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Walter, IngoIngo.Walter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Walton, NAInstitute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Wildi, F.University of Geneva, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Wolter, D.David.Wolter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:2021
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:646
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/202039608
Page Range:A157
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:ephemerides, planets and satellites: detection, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters, stars: fundamental parameters, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - CHEOPS Science
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research
Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Optics, Calibration and Validation
Deposited By: Smith, Dr Alexis M S
Deposited On:07 May 2021 12:41
Last Modified:07 May 2021 12:41

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