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Paths not taken - The Gossamer roadmap's other options

Spietz, Peter and Spröwitz, Tom and Seefeldt, Patric and Grundmann, Jan Thimo and Jahnke, Rico and Mikschl, Tobias and Mikulz, Eugen and Montenegro, Sergio and Reershemius, Siebo and Renger, Thomas and Ruffer, Michael and Sasaki, Kaname and Sznajder, Maciej and Toth, Norbert and Ceriotti, Matteo and Dachwald, Bernd and Macdonald, Malcolm and McInnes, Colin and Seboldt, Wolfgang and Quantius, Dominik and Bauer, Waldemar and Wiedemann, Carsten and Grimm, Christian and Hercik, David and Ho, Tra-Mi and Lange, Caroline and Schmitz, Nicole (2021) Paths not taken - The Gossamer roadmap's other options. Advances in Space Research, 67 (9), pp. 2912-2956. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.asr.2021.01.044. ISSN 0273-1177.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0273117721000995

Abstract

Highly efficient low-thrust propulsion is increasingly applied beyond commercial use, also in mainstream and flagship science missions, in combination with gravity assist propulsion. Another recent development is the growth of small spacecraft solutions, not in size but in numbers and individual capabilities. Just over ten years ago, the DLR-ESTEC Gossamer Roadmap to Solar Sailing was set up to guide technology developments towards a propellant-less and highly efficient class of spacecraft for solar system exploration and applications missions: small spacecraft solar sails designed for carefree handling and equipped with carried application modules. Soon, in three dedicated Gossamer Roadmap Science Working Groups it initiated studies of missions uniquely feasible with solar sails such as Displaced L1 (DL1) space weather advance warning and monitoring, Solar Polar Orbiter (SPO) delivery to very high inclination heliocentric orbit, and multiple Near-Earth Asteroid (NEA) rendezvous (MNR). Together, they demonstrate the capability of near-term solar sails to achieve at least in the inner solar system almost any kind of heliocentric orbit within 10 years, from the Earth-co-orbital to the extremely inclined, eccentric and even retrograde. Noted as part of the MNR study, sail-propelled head-on retrograde kinetic impactors (RKI) go to this extreme to achieve the highest possible specific kinetic energy for the deflection of hazardous asteroids. At DLR, the experience gained in the development of deployable membrane structures leading up to the successful ground deployment test of a (20 m)², i.e., 20 m by 20 m square solar sail at DLR Cologne in 1999 was revitalized and directed towards a 3-step small spacecraft development line from as-soon-as-possible sail deployment demonstration (Gossamer-1) via in-flight evaluation of sail attitude control actuators (Gossamer-2) to an envisaged proving-the-principle flight in the Earth-Moon system (Gossamer-3). First, it turned the concept of solar sail deployment on its head by introducing four separable Boom Sail Deployment Units (BSDU) to be discarded after deployment, enabling lightweight 3-axis stabilized sailcraft. By 2015, this effort culminated in the ground-qualified technology of the DLR Gossamer-1 deployment demonstrator Engineering Qualification Model (EQM). For mission types using separable payloads, such as SPO, MNR and RKI, design concepts can be derived from the BSDU characteristic of DLR Gossamer solar sail technology which share elements with the separation systems of asteroid nanolanders like MASCOT. These nano-spacecraft are an ideal match for solar sails in micro-spacecraft format whose launch configurations are compatible with ESPA and ASAP secondary payload platforms. Like any roadmap, this one contained much more than the planned route from departure to destination and the much shorter distance actually travelled. It is full of lanes, narrow and wide, detours and shortcuts, options and decision branches. Some became the path taken on which we previously reported. More were explored along the originally planned path or as new sidings in search of better options when circumstance changed and the project had to take another turn. But none were dead ends, they just faced the inevitable changes when roadmaps face realities and they were no longer part of the road ahead. To us, they were valuable lessons learned or options up our sleeves. But for future sailors they may be on their road ahead.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/141755/
Document Type:Article
Title:Paths not taken - The Gossamer roadmap's other options
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Spietz, PeterPeter.Spietz (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Spröwitz, TomTom.Sproewitz (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5369-6919
Seefeldt, PatricPatric.Seefeldt (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2067-9458
Grundmann, Jan Thimojan.grundmann (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8809-0981
Jahnke, Ricorico.jahnke (at) outlook.deUNSPECIFIED
Mikschl, Tobiastobias.mikschl (at) uni-wuerzburg.deUNSPECIFIED
Mikulz, EugenEugen.Mikulz (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Montenegro, Sergiosergio.montenegro (at) uni-wuerzburg.deUNSPECIFIED
Reershemius, SieboSiebo.Reershemius (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Renger, ThomasThomas.Renger (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ruffer, Michaelmichael.ruffer (at) uni-wuerzburg.deUNSPECIFIED
Sasaki, KanameKaname.Sasaki (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0365-4539
Sznajder, MaciejMaciej.Sznajder (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9917-0581
Toth, NorbertNorbert.Toth (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ceriotti, MatteoUniversity of Glasgow, Glasgow, Scotland, United Kingdomhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6819-7178
Dachwald, BerndFH Aachenhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8765-8339
Macdonald, MalcolmUniversity of Glasgow, Glasgow, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
McInnes, ColinUniversity of Strathclyde, Glasgow, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
Seboldt, Wolfgangnc-seboldwo (at) netcologne.deUNSPECIFIED
Quantius, DominikDominik.Quantius (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Bauer, WaldemarWaldemar.Bauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Wiedemann, CarstenInstitute of Aerospace Systems, Technische Universität BraunschweigUNSPECIFIED
Grimm, Christianchristian.grimm (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4490-7424
Hercik, Davidd.hercik (at) tu-braunschweig.deUNSPECIFIED
Ho, Tra-MiTra-Mi.Ho (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Lange, CarolineCaroline.Lange (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1709-3667
Schmitz, NicoleNicole.Schmitz (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6481-6189
Date:1 May 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Advances in Space Research
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:67
DOI :10.1016/j.asr.2021.01.044
Page Range:pp. 2912-2956
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0273-1177
Status:Published
Keywords:Gossamer-1 DLR-ESTEC Gossamer roadmap for solar sailing Small spacecraft Solar sail
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space System Technology
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R SY - Space System Technology
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - GoSolAr (Gossamer Solar Array), R - Project Mascot (Bus), R - CEF Studies, R - Robust thermal control system design for small satellites and landers, R - Virtual Satellite, R - Requirements and Verification Interchange in MBSE, R - Project MASCOT - Science, R - Projekt Mascot (Rob.)
Location: Bremen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Space Systems > Mechanic and Thermal Systems
Institute of Space Systems > Systems Engineering and Project Office
Institute of Space Systems > Avionics Systems
Institute of Space Systems > System Analysis Space Segment
Institute of Space Systems > Land and Exploration Technology
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geology
Deposited By: Grundmann, Jan Thimo
Deposited On:14 Apr 2021 10:57
Last Modified:14 Apr 2021 11:13

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