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Rare earth elements recovery from secondary wastes by solid-state chlorination and selective organic leaching

Pavón Regana, Sandra and Lorenz, Tom and Fortuny, A. and Sastre, A. M. and Bertau, Martin (2021) Rare earth elements recovery from secondary wastes by solid-state chlorination and selective organic leaching. Waste Management (122), pp. 55-63. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.wasman.2020.12.039. ISSN 0956-053X.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0956053X21000039

Abstract

Processing of end-of-life products (EoL) containing rare earth elements (REE) has gained increasing importance in recent years with the aim of avoiding supply risks. In addition, circular economy renders complete recirculation of technology metals mandatory. Fluorescent lamp wastes are an important source for REE recovery since they contain significant amounts, up to 55 wt%, of Y and Eu in red phosphors. For these purposes, solid-state chlorination (SSC) is an economically attractive alternative to wet acid leaching treatment, which profits from a considerable reduction of chemicals consumption and process costs. Chlorination takes place with dry HCl(g) produced from thermal decomposition of NH4Cl(s), not only converting the REE content of the Hg-free phosphor waste into water soluble REE metal chlorides, but also avoiding the implications of aqueous complex chemistry of REE. To establish an industrial process viable on a commercial scale, the SSC process has been optimized by (i) using a design of experiment (DOE) varying temperature, residence time, and gNH4Cl/gsolid ratio and (ii) improved leaching of the chlorinated metals with an organic mixture selective for REE. As a result, 95.7% of the Y and 92.2% of the Eu were selectively recovered at 295.9 °C, 67 min and a ratio of 1.27 gNH4Cl/gsolid, followed by quantitative selective leaching of the REE. Owed to its low chemicals consumption and operation costs, the current process allows for valorizing lamp waste even when raw material prices are low.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/140707/
Document Type:Article
Title:Rare earth elements recovery from secondary wastes by solid-state chlorination and selective organic leaching
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Pavón Regana, SandraInstitut für Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie FreibergUNSPECIFIED
Lorenz, TomTom.Lorenz (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fortuny, A.Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Chemical Engineering DepartmentUNSPECIFIED
Sastre, A. M.Universitat Politècnica de Catalunya, Chemical Engineering DepartmentUNSPECIFIED
Bertau, MartinInstitut für Technische Chemie, TU Bergakademie FreibergUNSPECIFIED
Date:January 2021
Journal or Publication Title:Waste Management
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1016/j.wasman.2020.12.039
Page Range:pp. 55-63
Publisher:Elsevier
ISSN:0956-053X
Status:Published
Keywords:Chlorination Electronic waste Fluorescent powder Rare earths recovery Recycling
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Energy Efficiency, Materials and Resources
HGF - Program Themes:Other
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E SP - Energy Storage
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Low-Carbon Industrial Processes (old)
Location: Cottbus
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Low-Carbon Industrial Processes > Simulation and Virtual Design
Deposited By: Lorenz, Tom
Deposited On:29 Jan 2021 09:50
Last Modified:29 Jan 2021 09:50

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