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Joint Europa mission (JEM) a multi-scale study of Europa to characterize its habitability and search for extant life

Blanc, Michel and Prieto-Ballesteros, O. and Andre, N. and Gomez-Elvira, J. and Jones, G.H. and Sterken, Veerle and Desprats, William and Gurvits, L. and Khurana, K. and Balmino, Georges and Blöcker, A. and Broquet, R. and Bunce, E.J. and Cavel, C. and Choblet, G. and Collins, G. and Coradini, M. and Cooper, J. F. and Dirkx, D. and Fontaine, D. and Garnier, P. and Gaudin, D. and Hartogh, Paul and Hussmann, Hauke and Genova, A. and Iess, L. and Jäggi, A. and Kempf, S. and Krupp, N. and Lara, L M and Lasue, J. and Lainey, V. and Leblanc, F. and Lebreton, J.-P. and Longobardo, A and Lorenz, R. D. and Martins, P. and Martins, Z. and Marty, J.-C. and Masters, A. and Mimoun, D. and Palumba, E. and Parro, V. and Regnier, P. and Saur, J. and Schutte, A. and Sittler, E. C. and Spohn, Tilman and Srama, R. and Stephan, Katrin and Szego, K. and Tosi, F. and Vance, S.D. and Wagner, Roland and Van Hoolst, T. and Volwerk, M. and Wahlund, J.-E. and Westall, F. and Wurz, P. (2020) Joint Europa mission (JEM) a multi-scale study of Europa to characterize its habitability and search for extant life. Planetary and Space Science, 193, pp. 104960-104996. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.pss.2020.104960. ISSN 0032-0633.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S003206331930501X


Europa is the closest and probably the most promising target to search for extant life in the Solar System, based on complementary evidence that it may fulfil the key criteria for habitability: the Galileo discovery of a sub-surface ocean; the many indications that the ice shell is active and may be partly permeable to transfer of chemical species, biomolecules and elementary forms of life; the identification of candidate thermal and chemical energy sources necessary to drive a metabolic activity near the ocean floor. In this article we are proposing that ESA collaborates with NASA to design and fly jointly an ambitious and exciting planetary mission, which we call the Joint Europa Mission (JEM), to reach two objectives: perform a full characterization of Europa’s habitability with the capabilities of a Europa orbiter, and search for bio-signatures in the environment of Europa (surface, subsurface and exosphere) by the combination of an orbiter and a lander. JEM can build on the advanced understanding of this system which the missions preceding JEM will provide: Juno, JUICE and Europa Clipper, and on the Europa lander concept currently designed by NASA (Maize, report to OPAG, 2019). We propose the following overarching goals for our Joint Europa Mission (JEM): Understand Europa as a complex system responding to Jupiter system forcing, characterize the habitability of its potential biosphere, and search for life at its surface and in its sub-surface and exosphere. We address these goals by a combination of five Priority Scientific Objectives, each with focused measurement objectives providing detailed constraints on the science payloads and on the platforms used by the mission. The JEM observation strategy will combine three types of scientific measurement sequences: measurements on a high-latitude, low-altitude Europan orbit; in-situ measurements to be performed at the surface, using a soft lander; and measurements during the final descent to Europa’s surface. The implementation of these three observation sequences will rest on the combination of two science platforms: a soft lander to perform all scientific measurements at the surface and sub-surface at a selected landing site, and an orbiter to perform the orbital survey and descent sequences. We describe a science payload for the lander and orbiter that will meet our science objectives. We propose an innovative distribution of roles for NASA and ESA; while NASA would provide an SLS launcher, the lander stack and most of the mission operations, ESA would provide the carrier-orbiter-relay platform and a stand-alone astrobiology module for the characterization of life at Europa’s surface: the Astrobiology Wet Laboratory (AWL). Following this approach, JEM will be a major exciting joint venture to the outer Solar System of NASA and ESA, working together toward one of the most exciting scientific endeavours of the 21st century: to search for life beyond our own planet.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/138499/
Document Type:Article
Title:Joint Europa mission (JEM) a multi-scale study of Europa to characterize its habitability and search for extant life
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Blanc, MichelIRAP CNRS University of Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Prieto-Ballesteros, O.Centro de Astrobiologı´a (INTA-CSIC), E-28850 Torrejo´ n de Ardoz, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Andre, N.IRAP, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Gomez-Elvira, J.Centro de Astrobiologia, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Jones, G.H.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, London, UKUNSPECIFIED
Sterken, VeerleUniversity of BerneUNSPECIFIED
Desprats, WilliamIRAP CNRS University of Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Gurvits, L.Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe, Dwingeloo, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Khurana, K.University of California, Los Angeles, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Balmino, GeorgesGET, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Blöcker, A.Royal Institute of Technology, KTH, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Broquet, R.Airbus DS, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Bunce, E.J.University of Leicester, United KingdomUNSPECIFIED
Cavel, C.Airbus DS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Choblet, G.Laboratoire de Planétologie et Géodynamique, Nantes, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Collins, G.Astron. & Phys. Dept., Wheaton College, Norton, MA 02766UNSPECIFIED
Cooper, J. F.NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USAUNSPECIFIED
Dirkx, D.TU Delft NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Fontaine, D.LPP, Palaiseau, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Garnier, P.IRAP, CNRS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Hartogh, PaulMax-Planck-Institut für Sonnensystemforschung, GöttingenUNSPECIFIED
Hussmann, Haukehauke.hussmann (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Genova, A.Univ. Roma La Sapienza, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Iess, L.Universita La Sapienza, Roma, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Jäggi, A.Universität BernUNSPECIFIED
Kempf, S.LASP, University of Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIED
Krupp, N.Max Planck Institut für SonnensystemforschungUNSPECIFIED
Lara, L MInstituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia CSIC, Glorieta de la Astronomia, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lasue, J.Université de Toulouse & CNRSUNSPECIFIED
Lainey, V.IMCCE-Observatoire de Paris, UMR 8028 du CNRS, UPMC, Université Lille 1, 77 Av. Denfert-Rochereau, 75014 Paris, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Leblanc, F.LATMOS/IPSL, CNRS, Université Pierre et Marie CurieUNSPECIFIED
Lebreton, J.-P.LPC2E, CNRS Orléans, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Longobardo, AINAF-LAPS, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, I-00133 Rome, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Lorenz, R. D.The Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory, Laurel, MD 20723, USAUNSPECIFIED
Martins, P.Telecom Paris Tech, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Martins, Z.CQE Instituto Superior Tecnico, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Marty, J.-C.CNES, GRGS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Masters, A.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, Department of Space and Climate Physics, University College London, London, UKUNSPECIFIED
Mimoun, D.Institut Supérieur de l’Aéronautique et de l’Espace, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Parro, V.Centro de Astrobiología, INTA-CSIC, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Regnier, P.Airbus DS, Toulouse, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Saur, J.Institute of Geophysics and Meteorology, University of Cologne, Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Schutte, A.SKA Organisation, UKUNSPECIFIED
Sittler, E. C.NASA/Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelt, MD 20771, USAUNSPECIFIED
Spohn, TilmanTilman.Spohn (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Srama, R.University of Stuttgart, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Stephan, KatrinKatrin.Stephan (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Szego, K.Wigner Research Centre for Physics, 1121 Konkoly Thege Street 29-33, Budapest, HungaryUNSPECIFIED
Wagner, RolandRoland.Wagner (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Van Hoolst, T.Royal Observatory Belgium Av Circulaire 3-Ringlaan 3 1180 Brussels BelgiumUNSPECIFIED
Volwerk, M.Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Wahlund, J.-E.Swedish Institute for Space Physics, Uppsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Westall, F.Centre de Biophysique Moléculaire, Centre National de la Recherché Scien-tifique (CNRS), Orléans, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Wurz, P.Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Sidlerstrasse 5, CH-3012 Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Planetary and Space Science
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1016/j.pss.2020.104960
Page Range:pp. 104960-104996
Keywords:Solar System, Galilean Satellites, Europa, Mission, Habitability
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project JUICE - JANUS and GALA
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geodesy
Institute of Planetary Research > Planetary Geology
Deposited By: Hußmann, Dr. Hauke
Deposited On:03 Dec 2020 14:12
Last Modified:05 Jan 2021 07:31

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