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Numerical and experimental analysis of flashing cryogenic nitrogen

Gärtner, Jan W. and Kronenburg, Andreas and Rees, Andreas and Sender, Joachim and Oschwald, Michael and Lamanna, Grazia (2020) Numerical and experimental analysis of flashing cryogenic nitrogen. International Journal of Multiphase Flow, 130. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.ijmultiphaseflow.2020.103360. ISSN 0301-9322.

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Official URL: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/abs/pii/S0301932220300537?via%3Dihub


The development of new upper orbit thrusters using cryogenic propellants requires an improved understanding of the dynamics of oxidizer and fuel injection at near vacuum conditions before ignition. Due to the low ambient pressure, the propellants enter a superheated state and flash evaporation occurs. Flash boiling of cryogenic liquid nitrogen is studied experimentally on the newly developed test bench at DLR Lampoldshausen and numerically with a newly developed OpenFOAM© solver. Here, a one-fluid approach is selected where phase properties, such as density, enthalpy and saturation conditions are determined with the thermodynamic library CoolProp and tabulated before runtime. The phase change is modeled by the homogeneous relaxation model. For highly superheated jets the flow becomes supersonic and forms a shock after the injector outlet. The solver is validated with the aid of flashing acetone spray experiments where the shock structures are more clearly visible. The results show that the developed solver is capable to predict the all important gas dynamics by matching shock structure and spray angle to the experiment. The experiments using cryogenic liquid, however, do not reveal any shock structures but regions with low negative axial velocities can be identified on the jet centerline. A comparison with the simulations now demonstrates that shocks continue to persist but the respective shadowgraph signals may be obscured in these flows. The joint experimental and numerical study thus provides a consistent understanding of the observed flow features that govern the fluid dynamics and jet breakup of cryogenic flashing flows.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/137999/
Document Type:Article
Title:Numerical and experimental analysis of flashing cryogenic nitrogen
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Gärtner, Jan W.Universität Stuttgart, Institut für Technische Verbrennung, Stuttgart, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kronenburg, AndreasUniversität Stuttgart, Institut für Technische Verbrennung, Stuttgart, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rees, AndreasUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4114-636XUNSPECIFIED
Sender, JoachimUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7408-1208UNSPECIFIED
Oschwald, MichaelUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9579-9825UNSPECIFIED
Lamanna, GraziaUniversity of Stuttgart, Institute of Aerospace Thermodynamics, Stuttgart, DUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:4 June 2020
Journal or Publication Title:International Journal of Multiphase Flow
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:flahs boiling, HRM model, spray structure
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Transportation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R RP - Space Transportation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Antriebsystemtechnik - Schubkammertechnologie (old)
Location: Lampoldshausen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Space Propulsion > Rocket Propulsion
Deposited By: Hanke, Michaela
Deposited On:25 Nov 2020 12:02
Last Modified:20 Oct 2023 09:06

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