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It Takes Two Planets in Resonance to Tango around K2-146

Lam, K. W. F. and Korth, Judith and Masuda, Kento and Csizmadia, Szilard and Eigmüller, Philipp and Stefánsson, Gumundur Kári and Endl, Michael and Albrecht, Simon and Robertson, Paul and Luque, Rafael and Livingston, John H. and Hirano, Teruyuki and Sobrino, Roi Alonso and Barragan, Oscar and Cabrera Perez, Juan and Carleo, I. and Chaushev, Alexander and Cochran, William D. and Dai, Fei and De Leon, J. and Deeg, Hans J. and Erikson, Anders and Esposito, Massimiliano and Fridlund, Malcolm and Fukui, Akihiko and Gandolfi, Davide and Georgieva, Iskra and Cuesta, LucáGonzalez and Grziwa, Sascha and Guenther, Eike W. and Hatzes, Artie P. and Hidalgo, Diego and Hjorth, Maria and Kabath, Petr and Knudstrup, Emil and Lund, Mikkel N. and Mahadevan, Suvrath and Mathur, Savita and Rodriguez, Pilar Montañes and Murgas, F. and Narita, Norio and Nespral, David and Niraula, Prajwal and Palle, Enric and Pätzold, Martin and Persson, Carina M. and Prieto-Arranz, Jorge and Rauer, H and Redfield, Seth and Ribas, Ignasi and Skarka, Marek and Smith, Alexis M.~S. and Subjak, J. and Van Eylen, V. (2020) It Takes Two Planets in Resonance to Tango around K2-146. Astronomical Journal, 159 (3), p. 120. American Astronomical Society. doi: 10.3847/1538-3881/ab66c9. ISSN 0004-6256.

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Official URL: https://iopscience.iop.org/article/10.3847/1538-3881/ab66c9

Abstract

K2-146 is a cool, 0.358 M⊙ dwarf that was found to host a mini-Neptune with a 2.67 day period. The planet exhibited strong transit timing variations (TTVs) of greater than 30 minutes, indicative of the presence of an additional object in the system. Here we report the discovery of the previously undetected outer planet in the system, K2-146 c, using additional photometric data. K2-146 c was found to have a grazing transit geometry and a 3.97 day period. The outer planet was only significantly detected in the latter K2 campaigns presumably because of precession of its orbital plane. The TTVs of K2-146 b and c were measured using observations spanning a baseline of almost 1200 days. We found strong anti-correlation in the TTVs, suggesting the two planets are gravitationally interacting. Our TTV and transit model analyses revealed that K2-146 b has a radius of 2.25 ± 0.10 R⊕ and a mass of 5.6 ± 0.7 M⊕ , whereas K2-146 c has a radius of 2.59+1.81−0.39 R⊕ and a mass of 7.1 ± 0.9 M⊕ . The inner and outer planets likely have moderate eccentricities of e = 0.14 ± 0.07 and 0.16 ± 0.07, respectively. Long-term numerical integrations of the two-planet orbital solution show that it can be dynamically stable for at least 2 Myr. We show that the resonance angles of the planet pair are librating, which may be an indication that K2-146 b and c are in a 3:2 mean motion resonance. The orbital architecture of the system points to a possible convergent migration origin.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/137510/
Document Type:Article
Title:It Takes Two Planets in Resonance to Tango around K2-146
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Lam, K. W. F.Zentrum fur Astronomie und Astrophysik, Technische Universitat Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Korth, JudithRheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Masuda, KentoDepartment of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton, NJ 08544, USAUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Szilardszilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Eigmüller, PhilippPhilipp.Eigmueller (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4096-0594
Stefánsson, Gumundur KáriDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Endl, MichaelDepartment of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USA 0000-0002-7714-6310UNSPECIFIED
Albrecht, SimonStellar Astrophysics Centre, Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Robertson, PaulDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, University Park, PA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Luque, RafaelInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Livingston, John H.Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan 0000-0002-4881-3620UNSPECIFIED
Hirano, TeruyukiDepartment of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, Japan 0000-0003-3618-7535UNSPECIFIED
Sobrino, Roi AlonsoInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barragan, OscarOxford Astrophysics, Department of Physics, University of Oxford, Denys Wilkinson Building, Keble Road, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, JuanJuan.Cabrera (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6653-5487
Carleo, I.Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, 06459, USAUNSPECIFIED
Chaushev, AlexanderCenter for Astronomy and Astrophysics, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, GermanyCenter for Astronomy and Astrophysics, TU Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Cochran, William D.Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX 78712, USA 0000-0001-9662-3496UNSPECIFIED
Dai, FeiDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA ; Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USAUNSPECIFIED
De Leon, J.Department of Astronomy, Graduate School of Science, The University of Tokyo, Hongo 7-3-1, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Deeg, Hans J.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain ; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, Spain 0000-0003-0047-4241UNSPECIFIED
Erikson, AndersDLR Institut für PlanetenforschungUNSPECIFIED
Esposito, MassimilianoThuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, MalcolmDepartment of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, Sweden ; Leiden Observatory, University of Leiden, PO Box 9513, 2300 RA, Leiden, The Netherlands 0000-0003-2180-9936UNSPECIFIED
Fukui, AkihikoSubaru Telescope Okayama Branch Office, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, 3037-5 Honjo, Kamogata, Asakuchi, Okayama 719-0232, Japan ; Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, C/ Vía Láctea, s/n, 38205 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, DavideDipartimento di Fisica, Universita degli Studi di Torino, via Pietro Giuria 1, I-10125, Torino, Italy ); 0000-0001-8627-9628UNSPECIFIED
Georgieva, IskraChalmers University of Technology, Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Cuesta, LucáGonzalezInstituto de Astrofísica de Canarias(IAC), E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Grziwa, SaschaRheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Koln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Koln, Germany 0000-0003-3370-4058UNSPECIFIED
Guenther, Eike W.Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hatzes, Artie P.Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, D-07778 Tautenberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hidalgo, DiegoInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Hjorth, MariaStellar Astrophysics Centre, Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Kabath, PetrAstronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165, Ondrejov, Czech Republic 0000-0002-1623-5352UNSPECIFIED
Knudstrup, EmilStellar Astrophysics Centre, Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Lund, Mikkel N.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Dep. of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Mahadevan, SuvrathDepartment of Astronomy and Astrophysics, The Pennsylvania State University, 525 Davey Lab, University Park, PA 16802, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mathur, SavitaInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Rodriguez, Pilar MontañesInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Murgas, F.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Narita, NorioDepartment of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, Japan; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Astrobiology Center, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo 181-8588, Japan ; NationUNSPECIFIED
Nespral, DavidInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Niraula, PrajwalDepartment of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA 0000-0002-8052-3893UNSPECIFIED
Palle, EnricInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Pätzold, MartinRheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Koln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Persson, Carina M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, SE-439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Prieto-Arranz, JorgeInstituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, E-38205 La Laguna, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, E-38206 La Laguna, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, Hheike.rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Redfield, SethAstronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT 06459, USA 0000-0003-3786-3486UNSPECIFIED
Ribas, IgnasiInstitut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB, C/ de Can Magrans s/n, E-08193 Bellaterra, Spain ; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), C/ Gran Capita 2-4, E-08034 Barcelona, Spain 0000-0002-6689-0312UNSPECIFIED
Skarka, MarekAstronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165, Ondrejov, Czech Republic; Department of Theoretical Physics and Astrophysics, Masaryk University, Kotlarska 2, 61137 Brno, Czech Republic 0000-0002-7602-0046UNSPECIFIED
Smith, Alexis M.~S.alexis.smith (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Subjak, J.Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165, Ondrejov, Czech Republic; Astronomical Institute, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 2027/3, 12116, Prague, Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London,Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIED
Date:March 2020
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomical Journal
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:159
DOI :10.3847/1538-3881/ab66c9
Page Range:p. 120
Publisher:American Astronomical Society
ISSN:0004-6256
Status:Published
Keywords:Transit photometry Timing variationmethods Mini Neptunes Exoplanet systems Photometry Astrometric exoplanetdetection Transit timing variation method
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Csizmadia, Szilard
Deposited On:16 Nov 2020 13:38
Last Modified:24 Nov 2020 10:43

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