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Precise mass and radius of a transiting super-Earth planet orbiting the M dwarf TOI-1235: a planet in the radius gap?

Bluhm, P. and Luque, R. and Espinoza, N. and Palle, E. and Caballero, J.A. and Dreizler, S. and Livingston, J.H. and Mathur, S. and Quirrenbach, A. and Stock, S. and Van Eylen, V. and Nowak, G. and López, E.D. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Zapatero Osorio, M.R. and Schöfer, P. and Lillo-Box, J. and Oshagh, M. and Gonzalez-Alvarez, E. and Amado, P.J. and Barrado, D. and Béjar, V.J.S. and Cale, B. and Chaturvedi, P. and Cifuentes, C. and Cochran, W.D. and Collins, K.A. and Collins, K.I. and Cortés-Contreras, M. and Diez Alonso, E. and El Mufti, M. and Ercolino, A. and Fridlund, M. and Gaidos, E. and Garcia, R.A. and Georgieva, I. and González-Cuesta, L. and Guerra, P. and Hatzes, A.P. and Henning, Th. and Herrero, E. and Hidalgo, D. and Isopi, G. and Jeffers, S.V. and Jenkins, J.M. and Jensen, E.L.N. and Kabath, P. and Kaminski, A. and Kemmer, J. and Korth, J. and Kossakowski, D. and Kurster, M. and Lafarga, M. and Mallia, F. and Montes, D. and Morales, J.C. and Morales-Calderón, M. and Murgas, F. and Narita, N. and Passegger, V.M. and Pedraz, S. and Persson, C.M. and Plavchan, P. and Rauer, H. and Redfield, S. and Reffert, S. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. and Ricker, G.R. and Rodriguez-López, C. and Santos, A.R.G. and Seager, S. and Schlecker, M. and Schweitzer, A. and Shan, Y. and Soto, M.G. and Subjak, J. and Tal-Or, L. and Trifonov, T. and Vanaverbeke, S. and Vanderspek, R. and Wittrock, J. and Zechmeister, M. and Zohrabi, F. (2020) Precise mass and radius of a transiting super-Earth planet orbiting the M dwarf TOI-1235: a planet in the radius gap? Astronomy & Astrophysics, 639, A132. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202038160. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2020/07/aa38160-20/aa38160-20.html

Abstract

We report the confirmation of a transiting planet around the bright weakly active M0.5 V star TOI-1235 (TYC 4384-1735-1, V ≈ 11.5 mag), whose transit signal was detected in the photometric time series of sectors 14, 20, and 21 of the TESS space mission. We confirm the planetary nature of the transit signal, which has a period of 3.44 d, by using precise RV measurements with the CARMENES, HARPS-N, and iSHELL spectrographs, supplemented by high-resolution imaging and ground-based photometry. A comparison of the properties derived for TOI-1235 b with theoretical models reveals that the planet has a rocky composition, with a bulk density slightly higher than that of Earth. In particular, we measure a mass of Mp = 5.9 ± 0.6 M⊕ and a radius of Rp = 1.69 ± 0.08 R⊕, which together result in a density of ρp = 6.7- 1.1+ 1.3 g cm-3. When compared with other well-characterized exoplanetary systems, the particular combination of planetary radius and mass places our discovery in the radius gap, which is a transition region between rocky planets and planets with significant atmospheric envelopes. A few examples of planets occupying the radius gap are known to date. While the exact location of the radius gap for M dwarfs is still a matter of debate, our results constrain it to be located at around 1.7 R⊕ or larger at the insolation levels received by TOI-1235 b (~60 S⊕). This makes it an extremely interesting object for further studies of planet formation and atmospheric evolution.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/137502/
Document Type:Article
Title:Precise mass and radius of a transiting super-Earth planet orbiting the M dwarf TOI-1235: a planet in the radius gap?
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Bluhm, P.Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Luque, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain );; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Espinoza, N.Space Telescope Science Institute, 3700 San Martin Drive, Baltimore, MD, 21218, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofısica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Caballero, J.A.Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC, Camino bajo delcastillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Dreizler, S.Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Livingston, J.H.Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo,Bunkyo-ky, Tokyo 113-0033, JapanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mathur, S.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Quirrenbach, A.Landessternwarte, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universtat Heidelberg, Konigstuhl 12, 69117, Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stock, S.Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London,Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey, RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nowak, G.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias, C/ Via Lactea s/n, 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
López, E.D.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Road,Greenbelt, MD 20771, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Sz.UNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698UNSPECIFIED
Zapatero Osorio, M.R.Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Carretera de Ajalvir km 4,28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schöfer, P.Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lillo-Box, J.European Southern Observatory, Alonso de Cordova 3107, Vitacura, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Oshagh, M.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife,SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gonzalez-Alvarez, E.INAF, Osservatorio Astronomico di Palermo, Piazza del Parlamento 1, 90134 Palermo ,ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Amado, P.J.Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de laAstronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, D.Departamento de Astrofisica, Centro de Astrobiologia (INTA-CSIC), Campus ESAC (ESA)Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n 28692 Villanueva de la Canada, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Béjar, V.J.S.Instituto de Astrofísica de Canarias, 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife,SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cale, B.Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University,4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Chaturvedi, P.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cifuentes, C.Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC, Camino bajo del castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cochran, W.D.Center for Planetary Systems Habitability and McDonald Obser-vatory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78730,USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Collins, K.A.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Collins, K.I.Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University,4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cortés-Contreras, M.Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC, Camino bajo del castillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Diez Alonso, E.Departamento de Explotación y Prospección de Minas, Escuela deMinas, Energía y Materiales, Universidad de Oviedo, 33003 Oviedo,SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
El Mufti, M.Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University,4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ercolino, A.Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory, Regione Lazio, 03010Guarcino (FR), ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Gaidos, E.Department of Geology and Geophysics, University of Hawaii atUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Garcia, R.A.IRFU, CEA, Université Paris-Saclay, 91191 Gif-sur-Yvette, FranceUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Georgieva, I.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
González-Cuesta, L.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna, 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Guerra, P.Observatori Astronómic Albanyá, Camí de Bassegoda s/n, Albanyá 17733, Girona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hatzes, A.P.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Henning, Th.Max-Planck-InstitutfürAstronomie,Königstuhl17,69117Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Herrero, E.Montsec Astronomical Observatory (OAdM), Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Hidalgo, D.Instituto de Astrof´ısica de Canarias, E-38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Isopi, G.Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory, Regione Lazio, 03010Guarcino (FR), ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jeffers, S.V.Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, J.M.NASA 31 Research Center, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Jensen, E.L.N.Department of Physics & Astronomy, Swarthmore College,Swarthmore PA 19081, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kabath, P.Astronomical Institute ASCR, Fricova 298, 25165 Ondrejov, Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kaminski, A.Landessternwarte, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universtat Heidelberg, Konigstuhl 12, 69117, Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kemmer, J.Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Korth, J.Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universität zu Köln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Köln, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kossakowski, D.Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg, 69117, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Kurster, M.Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lafarga, M.Institut de Ciencies de l'Espai (ICE, CSIC), C/Can Magrans, s/n, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mallia, F.Campo Catino Astronomical Observatory, Regione Lazio, 03010Guarcino (FR), ItalyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Montes, D.Departamento de Física de la Tierra y Astrofísica and IPARCOS-UCM (Instituto de Física de Partículas y del Cosmos de la UCM),Facultad de Ciencias Físicas, Universidad Complutense de Madrid,28040, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morales, J.C.Institut de Ciències de l’Espai (ICE, CSIC), Campus UAB,Can Magrans s/n, 08193 Bellaterra, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Morales-Calderón, M.Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), ESAC, Camino bajo delcastillo s/n, 28692 Villanueva de la Cañada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Murgas, F.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Narita, N.Astrobiology Center and National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan; Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8551, Japan; InstitutUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Passegger, V.M.Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112,21029 Hamburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Pedraz, S.Calar Alto ObservatoryUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C.M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers Universityof Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Plavchan, P.Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University,4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, H.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Redfield, S.Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, 06459, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Reffert, S.Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Reiners, A.Institut fur Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitat, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077, Gottingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institute d´Estudis Espacials de Catalunya and Instituto de Ciencias des Espacio, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ricker, G.R.Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MassachusettsInstitute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rodriguez-López, C.nstituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (CSIC), Glorieta de laAstronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Santos, A.R.G.Space Science Institute, 4765 Walnut St., Suite B, Boulder, CO80301, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Seager, S.NSF Graduate Research Fellow, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 0213UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schlecker, M.Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Schweitzer, A.Hamburger Sternwarte, Universität Hamburg, Gojenbergsweg 112,21029 Hamburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Shan, Y.Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Soto, M.G.School of Physics and Astronomy, Queen Mary University London,327 Mile End Road, London E1 4NS, UKUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Subjak, J.Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165, Ondrejov, Czech Republic; Astronomical Institute, Faculty of Mathematics and Physics, Charles University, Ke Karlovu 2027/3, 12116, Prague, Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tal-Or, L.Institut fuer Astrophysik (IAG), Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Goettingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Trifonov, T.Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, Heidelberg, 69117, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vanaverbeke, S.astroLAB IRIS, Verbrandemolenstraat 5, B-8902 Zillebeke, BelgiumUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vanderspek, R.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wittrock, J.Department of Physics and Astronomy, George Mason University,4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA 22030, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zechmeister, M.Institut für Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universität, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Zohrabi, F.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Mississippi State University,355 Lee Boulevard, Mississippi State, MS 39762, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:July 2020
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:639
DOI:10.1051/0004-6361/202038160
Page Range:A132
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:techniques: photometric, techniques: radial velocities, stars: individual: TOI-1235, stars: late-type, Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Csizmadia, Szilard
Deposited On:16 Nov 2020 13:12
Last Modified:16 Nov 2020 13:12

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