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A planetary system with two transiting mini-Neptunes near the radius valley transition around the bright M dwarf TOI-776

Luque, R. and Serrano, L.M. and Molaverdikhani, K. and Nixon, M.C. and Livingston, J.H. and Guenther, E.W. and Palle, E. and Madhusudhan, N. and Nowak, G. and Korth, J. and Cochran, W.D. and Hirano, T. and Chaturvedi, P. and Goffo, E. and Albrecht, S. and Barragán, O. and Briceño, C. and Cabrera, J. and Charbonneau, D. and Cloutier, R. and Collins, K.A. and Collins, K.I. and Colón, K.D. and Crossfield, I.J.M. and Csizmadia, Sz. and Dai, F. and Deeg, H.J. and Esposito, M. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Georgieva, I. and Glidden, A. and Goeke, R.F. and Grziwa, S. and Hatzes, A.P. and Henze, C.E. and Howell, S.B. and Irwin, J. and Jenkins, J.M. and Jensen, E.L.N. and Kabath, P. and Kidwell, Jr. and Kielkopf, J.F. and Knudstrup, E. and Lam, K.W.F. and Latham, D.W. and Lissauer, J.J. and Mann, A.W. and Matthews, E.C. and Mireles, I. and Narita, N. and Paegert, M. and Persson, C.M. and Redfield, S. and Ricker, G.R. and Rodler, F. and Schlieder, J.E. and Scott, N.J. and Seager, S. and Svubjak, J. and Tan, T.G. and Ting, E.B. and Vanderspek, R. and Van Eylen, V. and Winn, J.N. and Ziegler, C. (2021) A planetary system with two transiting mini-Neptunes near the radius valley transition around the bright M dwarf TOI-776. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 645, A41. EDP Sciences. doi: 10.1051/0004-6361/202039455. ISSN 0004-6361.

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Official URL: https://www.aanda.org/articles/aa/abs/2021/01/aa39455-20/aa39455-20.html

Abstract

We report the discovery and characterization of two transiting planets around the bright M1 V star LP 961-53 (TOI-776,J=8.5 mag,M=0.54±0.03M) detected during Sector 10 observations of the Transiting Exoplanet Survey Satellite (TESS). Combining them with HARPS radialvelocities, as well as ground-based follow-up transit observations from MEarth and LCOGT telescopes, we measured for the inner planet, TOI-776 b, a period of 8.25 d, a radius of 1.83±0.11R⊕, and a mass of 4.66±0.97M⊕; and for the outer planet, TOI-776 c, a period of 15.66 d, a radiusof 2.06±0.13R⊕, and a mass of 6.1±1.5M⊕. The Doppler data shows one additional signal, with a period of∼35 d, associated with the rotationalperiod of the star. The analysis of fifteen years of ground-based photometric monitoring data and the inspection of different spectral line indicatorsconfirm this assumption. The bulk densities of TOI-776 b and c allow for a wide range of possible interior and atmospheric compositions. However,both planets have retained a significant atmosphere, with slightly different envelope mass fractions. Thanks to their location near the radius gap forM dwarfs, we can start to explore the mechanism(s) responsible for the radius valley emergence around low-mass stars as compared to solar-likestars. While a larger sample of well-characterized planets in this parameter space is still needed to draw firm conclusions, we tentatively estimatethat the stellar mass below which thermally-driven mass loss is no longer the main formation pathway for sculpting the radius valley is between0.63 and 0.54M. Due to the brightness of the star, the TOI-776 system is also an excellent target for theJWST, providing a remarkable laboratoryto break the degeneracy in planetary interior models and to test formation and evolution theories of small planets around low-mass stars

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/137290/
Document Type:Article
Title:A planetary system with two transiting mini-Neptunes near the radius valley transition around the bright M dwarf TOI-776
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Luque, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain );; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Serrano, L.M.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via PietroGiuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Molaverdikhani, K.Landessternwarte, Zentrum für Astronomie der Universität Heidelberg, Königstuhl 12, 69117 Heidelberg, Germany; Max-Planck-Institut für Astronomie, Königstuhl 17, 69117 Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Nixon, M.C.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Madingley Road,Cambridge CB3 0HA, UKUNSPECIFIED
Livingston, J.H.Department of Astronomy, University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo,Bunkyo-ky, Tokyo 113-0033, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Guenther, E.W.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, 07778, Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Palle, E.instituto de astrofísica de canarias, 38205 la laguna, tenerife, spain | departamento de astrofisica, universidad de la laguna, 38206 la laguna, spainUNSPECIFIED
Madhusudhan, N.IoA, University of Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Nowak, G.Instituto de Astrofısica de Canarias (IAC), 38205 La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Korth, J.Rheinisches Institut für Umweltforschung an der Universitaet zu Koeln, Aachener Strasse 209, D-50931 Koeln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Cochran, W.D.Center for Planetary Systems Habitability and McDonald Observa-tory, The University of Texas at Austin, Austin, TX 78730, USAUNSPECIFIED
Hirano, T.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo, 152-8551, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Chaturvedi, P.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778 Taut-enburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Goffo, E.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università degli Studi di Torino, via PietroGiuria 1, I-10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Albrecht, S.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, DK-8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Barragán, O.Sub-department of Astrophysics, Department of Physics, Universityof Oxford, Oxford OX1 3RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Briceño, C.Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, Casilla 603, La Serena, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera, J.nstitute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Charbonneau, D.Center for Astrophysics|Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Cloutier, R.Center for Astrophysics | Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Collins, K.A.Center for Astrophysics|Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Collins, K.I.George Mason University, 4400 University Drive, Fairfax, VA,22030 USAUNSPECIFIED
Colón, K.D.Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Mail Code 667,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Green-belt MD, 20771, USAUNSPECIFIED
Crossfield, I.J.M.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Kansas,Lawrence, KS, USAUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Sz.nstitute of Planetary Research, German Aerospace Center, Rutherfordstrasse 2, 12489, Berlin, Germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6803-9698
Dai, F.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Deeg, H.J.instituto de astrofísica de canarias, 38205 la laguna, tenerife, spain | departamento de astrofisica, universidad de la laguna, 38206 la laguna, spainUNSPECIFIED
Esposito, M.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, 07778, Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, Sweden; Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA, Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Università di Torino, via P. Giuria 1, I-10125 Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Georgieva, I.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Onsala Space Observatory, Chalmers University of Technology, SE-439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Glidden, A.Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA; Instituto de Astrofísica de Andalucía (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomía s/n, 18008 Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Goeke, R.F.Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Mas-sachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Grziwa, S.Rheinisches Institut furr Umweltforschung an der Universitaet zu Koeln, Aachener Strasse 209, 50931 Koeln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hatzes, A.P.Thüringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, 07778, Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Henze, C.E.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Howell, S.B.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Irwin, J.Center for Astrophysics|Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, J.M.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Jensen, E.L.N.Dept. of Physics & Astronomy, Swarthmore College, SwarthmorePA 19081, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kabath, P.Astronomical Institute, Czech Academy of Sciences, Fricova 298, 25165, Ondrejov, Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIED
Kidwell, Jr.pace Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kielkopf, J.F.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Louisville,Louisville, KY 40292, USAUNSPECIFIED
Knudstrup, E.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Deparment of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegrade 120, 8000 Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Lam, K.W.F.Center for Astronomy and Astrophysics, Technical University Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Latham, D.W.Center for Astrophysics|Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Lissauer, J.J.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mann, A.W.Department of Physics and Astronomy, The University of NorthCarolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC 27599-3255, USAUNSPECIFIED
Matthews, E.C.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics andSpace Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mireles, I.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics andSpace Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Narita, N.Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo 113-0033, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Paegert, M.Center for Astrophysics|Harvard & Smithsonian, 60 Garden Street,Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C.M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers Universityof Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92 Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Redfield, S.Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, 06459, USAUNSPECIFIED
Ricker, G.R.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics andSpace Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge,MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Rodler, F.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA 02138, USAUNSPECIFIED
Schlieder, J.E.Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory, Mail Code 667,NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, 8800 Greenbelt Rd., Green-belt MD, 20771, USAUNSPECIFIED
Scott, N.J.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Seager, S.NSF Graduate Research Fellow, Steward Observatory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, 85721, USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USA; Department of Aeronautics and Astronautics, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 0213UNSPECIFIED
Svubjak, J.Astronomical Institute of the Czech Academy of Sciences, Friˇcova298, 25165 Ondˇrejov, Czech RepublicUNSPECIFIED
Tan, T.G.erth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth, Western AustraliaUNSPECIFIED
Ting, E.B.Space Science & Astrobiology Division, NASA Ames ResearchCenter, Moffett Field, CA 94035, USAUNSPECIFIED
Vanderspek, R.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, MIT, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London,Holmbury St Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UKUNSPECIFIED
Winn, J.N.Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT) 77 Massachusetts Avenue, Cambridge, MA 02139-4307, United StatesUNSPECIFIED
Ziegler, C.Dunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, 50 St. George Street, Toronto, Ontario, M5S 3H4, CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Date:2021
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:645
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/202039455
Page Range:A41
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:lanetary systems – techniques: photometric – techniques: radial velocities – stars: individual: LP 961-53 – stars: low-mass
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Deposited By: Csizmadia, Szilard
Deposited On:05 Jan 2021 07:25
Last Modified:05 Jan 2021 07:25

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