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Molecular repertoire of Deinococcus radiodurans after 1 year of exposure outside the International Space Station within the Tanpopo mission

Ott, Emanuel and Kawaguchi, Yuko and Kölbl, Denise and Rabbow, Elke and Rettberg, Petra and Mora, Maximilian and Moissl-Eichinger, Christine and Weckwerth, Wolfram and Yamagishi, Akihiko and Milojevic, Tetyana (2020) Molecular repertoire of Deinococcus radiodurans after 1 year of exposure outside the International Space Station within the Tanpopo mission. Microbiome, 8 (1), p. 150. BioMed Central. doi: 10.1186/s40168-020-00927-5. ISSN 2049-2618.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40168-020-00927-5

Abstract

Background: The extraordinarily resistant bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans withstands harsh environmental conditions present in outer space. Deinococcus radiodurans was exposed for 1 year outside the International Space Station within Tanpopo orbital mission to investigate microbial survival and space travel. In addition, a groundbased simulation experiment with conditions, mirroring those from low Earth orbit, was performed. Methods: We monitored Deinococcus radiodurans cells during early stage of recovery after low Earth orbit exposure using electron microscopy tools. Furthermore, proteomic, transcriptomic and metabolomic analyses were performed to identify molecular mechanisms responsible for the survival of Deinococcus radiodurans in low Earth orbit. Results: D. radiodurans cells exposed to low Earth orbit conditions do not exhibit any morphological damage. However, an accumulation of numerous outer-membrane-associated vesicles was observed. On levels of proteins and transcripts, a multi-faceted response was detected to alleviate cell stress. The UvrABC endonuclease excision repair mechanism was triggered to cope with DNA damage. Defense against reactive oxygen species is mirrored by the increased abundance of catalases and is accompanied by the increased abundance of putrescine, which works as reactive oxygen species scavenging molecule. In addition, several proteins and mRNAs, responsible for regulatory and transporting functions showed increased abundances. The decrease in primary metabolites indicates alternations in the energy status, which is needed to repair damaged molecules. Conclusion: Low Earth orbit induced molecular rearrangements trigger multiple components of metabolic stress response and regulatory networks in exposed microbial cells. Presented results show that the non-sporulating bacterium Deinococcus radiodurans survived long-term low Earth orbit exposure if wavelength below 200 nm are not present, which mirrors the UV spectrum of Mars, where CO₂ effectively provides a shield below 190 nm. These results should be considered in the context of planetary protection concerns and the development of new sterilization techniques for future space missions.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/137235/
Document Type:Article
Title:Molecular repertoire of Deinococcus radiodurans after 1 year of exposure outside the International Space Station within the Tanpopo mission
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Ott, EmanuelSpace Biochemistry Group, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Kawaguchi, YukoPlanetary Exploration Research Center (PERC), Chiba Institute of Technology (CIT), Chiba, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Kölbl, DeniseSpace Biochemistry Group, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Rabbow, ElkeRadiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany; Elke.Rabbow (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9301-2021
Rettberg, PetraRadiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany; petra.rettberg (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4439-2395
Mora, MaximilianDepartment of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Moissl-Eichinger, ChristineDepartment of Internal Medicine, Section of Infectious Diseases and Tropical Medicine, Medical University Graz, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Weckwerth, WolframDepartment of Ecogenomics and Systems Biology, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria and Vienna Metabolomics Center (VIME), University of Vienna, Vienna AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Yamagishi, AkihikoDepartment of Life Science, Tokyo Institute of Technology, Nagatsuta, Yokohama, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Milojevic, TetyanaSpace Biochemistry Group, Department of Biophysical Chemistry, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria; tetyana.milojevic (at) univie.ac.atUNSPECIFIED
Date:29 October 2020
Journal or Publication Title:Microbiome
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:8
DOI:10.1186/s40168-020-00927-5
Page Range:p. 150
Publisher:BioMed Central
ISSN:2049-2618
Status:Published
Keywords:Deinococcus radiodurans, Low earth orbit, Proteomics, Transcriptomics, Metabolomics, Molecular stress response
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:06 Nov 2020 08:44
Last Modified:06 Nov 2020 08:44

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