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A remnant planetary core in the hot-Neptune desert

Armstrong, David J. and Lopez, Théo A. and Adibekyan, Vardan and Booth, Richard A. and Bryant, Edward M. and Collins, Karen A. and Deleuil, Magali and Emsenhuber, Alexandre and Huang, Chelsea X. and King, George W. and Lillo-Box, Jorge and Lissauer, Jack J. and Matthews, Elisabeth and Mousis, Olivier and Nielsen, Louise D. and Osborn, H and Otegi, Jon and Santos, Nuno C. and Sousa, Sérgio G. and Stassun, Keivan G. and Veras, Dimitri and Ziegler, Carl and Acton, Jack S. and Almenara, Jose M. and Anderson, David R. and Barrado, David and Barros, Susana C.C. and Bayliss, Daniel and Belardi, Claudia and Bouchy, Francois and Briceño, César and Brogi, Matteo and Brown, David and Burleigh, Matthew R. and Casewell, Sarah L. and Chaushev, Alexander and Ciardi, David R. and Collins, Kevin I. and Colón, Knicole D. and Cooke, Benjamin F. and Crossfield, Ian J.M. and Díaz, Rodrigo F. and Mena, Elisa Delgado and Demangeon, Olivier D.S. and Dorn, Caroline and Dumusque, Xavier and Eigmüller, Philipp and Fausnaugh, Michael and Figueira, Pedro and Gan, Tianjun and Gandhi, Siddharth and Gill, Samuel and Gonzales, Erica J. and Goad, Michael R. and Günther, Maximilian N. and Helled, Ravit and Hojjatpanah, Saeed and Howell, Steve B. and Jackman, James A. G. and Jenkins, James S. and Jenkins, Jon M. and Jensen, Eric L.N. and Kennedy, Grant M. and Latham, David W. and Law, Nicholas and Lendl, Monika and Lozovsky, Michael and Mann, Andrew W. and Moyano, Maximiliano and McCormac, James and Meru, Farzana and Mordasini, Christoph and Osborn, Ares and Pollacco, Don and Queloz, Didier and Raynard, Liam and Ricker, George R. and Rowden, Pamela and Santerne, Alexandre and Schlieder, Joshua E. and Seager, Sara and Sha, Lizhou and Tan, Thiam-Guan and Tilbrook, Rosanna H. and Ting, Eric and Udry, Stephane and Vanderspek, Roland and Watson, Christopher A. and West, Richard G. and Wilson, Paul A. and Winn, Joshua N. and Wheatley, Peter J. and Villasenor, Jesus Noel and Vines, Jose I. and Zhan, Zhuchang (2020) A remnant planetary core in the hot-Neptune desert. Nature, 583 (7814), pp. 39-42. Nature Publishing Group. doi: 10.1038/s41586-020-2421-7. ISSN 0028-0836.

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Official URL: https://www.nature.com/articles/s41586-020-2421-7

Abstract

The interiors of giant planets remain poorly understood. Even for the planets in the Solar System, difficulties in observation lead to large uncertainties in the properties of planetary cores. Exoplanets that have undergone rare evolutionary processes provide a route to understanding planetary interiors. Planets found in and near the typically barren hot-Neptune `desert'1,2 (a region in mass-radius space that contains few planets) have proved to be particularly valuable in this regard. These planets include HD149026b3, which is thought to have an unusually massive core, and recent discoveries such as LTT9779b4 and NGTS-4b5, on which photoevaporation has removed a substantial part of their outer atmospheres. Here we report observations of the planet TOI-849b, which has a radius smaller than Neptune's but an anomalously large mass of 39.1 -2.6+2.7? Earth masses and a density of 5.2 -0.8+0.7? grams per cubic centimetre, similar to Earth's. Interior-structure models suggest that any gaseous envelope of pure hydrogen and helium consists of no more than 3.9-0.9+0.8? per cent of the total planetary mass. The planet could have been a gas giant before undergoing extreme mass loss via thermal self-disruption or giant planet collisions, or it could have avoided substantial gas accretion, perhaps through gap opening or late formation6. Although photoevaporation rates cannot account for the mass loss required to reduce a Jupiter-like gas giant, they can remove a small (a few Earth masses) hydrogen and helium envelope on timescales of several billion years, implying that any remaining atmosphere on TOI-849b is likely to be enriched by water or other volatiles from the planetary interior. We conclude that TOI-849b is the remnant core of a giant planet.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/136667/
Document Type:Article
Title:A remnant planetary core in the hot-Neptune desert
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Armstrong, David J.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5080-4117
Lopez, Théo A.Aix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseilles, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Adibekyan, VardanInstituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Booth, Richard A.Institute of Astronomy, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UKUNSPECIFIED
Bryant, Edward M.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Collins, Karen A.Center for Astrophysics, Harvard and Smithsonian, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Deleuil, MagaliAix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseilles, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Emsenhuber, AlexandreLunar and Planetary Laboratory, University of Arizona, Tucson, AZ, USA; Physikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Huang, Chelsea X.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
King, George W.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Lillo-Box, JorgeDepartamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lissauer, Jack J.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Matthews, ElisabethDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Mousis, OlivierAix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseilles, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Nielsen, Louise D.Observatoire de Genève, Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Sauverny, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Osborn, HAix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseilles, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Otegi, JonObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genéve, Versoix, Switzerland; Institute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Santos, Nuno C.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Sousa, Sérgio G.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Stassun, Keivan G.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, TN, USA; Department of Physics, Fisk University, Nashville, TN, USAUNSPECIFIED
Veras, DimitriCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ziegler, CarlDunlap Institute for Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of Toronto, Toronto, Ontario, CanadaUNSPECIFIED
Acton, Jack S.School of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, Leicester, UKUNSPECIFIED
Almenara, Jose M.Université Grenoble Alpes, CNRS, IPAG, Grenoble, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Anderson, David R.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Barrado, DavidDepartamento de Astrofísica, Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barros, Susana C.C.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Bayliss, DanielCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Belardi, ClaudiaDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester , University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Bouchy, FrancoisGeneva Observatory, University of Geneva, Chemin des Mailettes 51, CH-1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Briceño, CésarCerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory, La Serena, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Brogi, MatteoCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; INAF Osservatorio Astrofisico di Torino, Pino Torinese, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Brown, DavidCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Burleigh, Matthew R.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Casewell, Sarah L.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Chaushev, AlexanderCenter for Astronomy and Astrophysics, TU Berlin, Hardenbergstr. 36, 10623 Berlin, GermanyCenter for Astronomy and Astrophysics, TU Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Ciardi, David R.Caltech/IPAC-NASA Exoplanet Science Institute, Pasadena, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Collins, Kevin I.George Mason University, Fairfax, VA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Colón, Knicole D.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory (Code 667), Greenbelt, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Cooke, Benjamin F.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Crossfield, Ian J.M.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Díaz, Rodrigo F.Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; Instituto de Astronomía y Física del Espacio (IAFE), CONICET - Universidad de Buenos Aires, Buenos Aires, Argentina; International Center for Advanced StudiesUNSPECIFIED
Mena, Elisa DelgadoInstituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Demangeon, Olivier D.S.Instituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Dorn, CarolineInstitute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Dumusque, XavierObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genéve, Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Eigmüller, PhilippPhilipp.Eigmueller (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4096-0594
Fausnaugh, MichaelDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Figueira, PedroInstituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, Portugal; European Southern Observatory, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Gan, TianjunDepartment of Astronomy and Tsinghua Centre for Astrophysics, Tsinghua University, Beijing, ChinaUNSPECIFIED
Gandhi, SiddharthDepartment of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Gill, SamuelDepartment of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Gonzales, Erica J.Department of Astronomy and Astrophysics, University of California at Santa Cruz, Santa Cruz, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Goad, Michael R.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Günther, Maximilian N.Astrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J. J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UK; Department of Physics, and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Helled, RavitInstitute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Hojjatpanah, SaeedInstituto de Astrofísica e Ciências do Espaço, Universidade do Porto, CAUP, Porto, Portugal; Departamento de Física e Astronomia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Porto, PortugalUNSPECIFIED
Howell, Steve B.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Jackman, James A. G.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, James S.Departamento de Astronomia, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, Santiago, Chile; Centro de Astrofísica y Tecnologías Afines (CATA), Casilla 36-D, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Jenkins, Jon M.NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Jensen, Eric L.N.Department of Physics and Astronomy, Swarthmore College, Swarthmore, PA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Kennedy, Grant M.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Latham, David W.Harvard-Smithsonian Center for Astrophysics, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Law, NicholasDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAUNSPECIFIED
Lendl, MonikaObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genéve, Versoix, Switzerland; Space Research Institute, Austrian Academy of Sciences, Graz, AustriaUNSPECIFIED
Lozovsky, MichaelInstitute for Computational Science, University of Zurich, Zurich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Mann, Andrew W.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, Chapel Hill, NC, USAUNSPECIFIED
Moyano, MaximilianoInstituto de Astronomía, Universidad Católica del Norte, Angamos 0610, 1270709 Antofagasta, ChileUNSPECIFIED
McCormac, JamesDepartment of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Meru, FarzanaCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Mordasini, ChristophPhysikalisches Institut, University of Bern, Bern, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Osborn, AresCentre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Pollacco, DonDepartment of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Queloz, DidierAstrophysics Group, Cavendish Laboratory, J.J. Thomson Avenue, Cambridge CB3 0HE, UKUNSPECIFIED
Raynard, LiamDepartment of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6472-9122
Ricker, George R.Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Rowden, PamelaSchool of Physical Sciences, The Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UKUNSPECIFIED
Santerne, AlexandreAix-Marseille Université, CNRS, CNES, LAM, Marseilles, FranceUNSPECIFIED
Schlieder, Joshua E.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Exoplanets and Stellar Astrophysics Laboratory (Code 667), Greenbelt, MD, USAUNSPECIFIED
Seager, SaraDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; Department of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USA; DUNSPECIFIED
Sha, LizhouDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Tan, Thiam-GuanPerth Exoplanet Survey Telescope, Perth, Western Australia, AustraliaUNSPECIFIED
Tilbrook, Rosanna H.Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UKUNSPECIFIED
Ting, EricNASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, CA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Udry, StephaneObservatoire Astronomique de l'Université de Genève, 51 Ch. des Maillettes, CH-1290 Versoix, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Vanderspek, RolandDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Watson, Christopher A.Astrophysics Research Centre, Queen's University Belfast, 1 University Road, Belfast BT7 1NN, UKUNSPECIFIED
West, Richard G.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, Paul A.Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK; Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Coventry, UKUNSPECIFIED
Winn, Joshua N.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ 08544, USAUNSPECIFIED
Wheatley, Peter J.Department of Physics, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UK; Centre for Exoplanets and Habitability, University of Warwick, Gibbet Hill Road, Coventry CV4 7AL, UKUNSPECIFIED
Villasenor, Jesus NoelDepartment of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Vines, Jose I.Departamento de Astronomía, Universidad de Chile, Casilla 36-D, 7591245, Santiago, ChileUNSPECIFIED
Zhan, ZhuchangDepartment of Earth, Atmospheric and Planetary Sciences, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, USAUNSPECIFIED
Date:2020
Journal or Publication Title:Nature
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:583
DOI :10.1038/s41586-020-2421-7
Page Range:pp. 39-42
Publisher:Nature Publishing Group
ISSN:0028-0836
Status:Published
Keywords:Astrophysics - Earth and Planetary Astrophysics, Astrophysics - Solar and Stellar Astrophysics
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Space Exploration
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Project PLATO (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Deposited By: Eigmüller, Dr. Philipp
Deposited On:04 Nov 2020 07:57
Last Modified:04 Nov 2020 07:58

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