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Optimised capacity and operating strategy for providing frequency containment reserve with batteries and power-to-heat

Schlachter, Uli and Worschech, Alena and Diekmann, Theys and Hanke, Benedikt and Maydell, Karsten von (2020) Optimised capacity and operating strategy for providing frequency containment reserve with batteries and power-to-heat. Journal of Energy Storage. Elsevier. doi: 10.1016/j.est.2020.101964. ISSN 2352-152X.

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Batteries provide growing amounts of Frequency Containment Reserve (FCR) in the German electricity market. We examine the ideal battery capacity as well as the state of charge (SoC) setpoint for provision of FCR following a profit maximisation approach. While a lot of research neglects taxes, their huge influence on the results is considered. In addition to stand-alone battery systems, we also consider hybrid systems, combining a battery storage with a Power-to-Heat (PtH) module. The hybrid system has two variants: in one variant energy is sold when the battery is fully charged, while in the other one the PtH module is used. Based on historical frequency and market data for one year, the performance of the different system variants is evaluated via a simulation. 2048 different combinations of battery capacity and SoC setpoint are examined. The performance of each configuration is evaluated with the net present value (NPV) method, allowing an economic comparison. The results show a financial advantage for the hybrid systems which sell energy when the battery is fully charged. The system configuration with the best NPV is a hybrid system with a battery capacity of 480 kWh and an SoC setpoint of 98%. The best battery capacity of all considered variants has a lower capacity to power ratio than the usual ratio of 1 MWh to 1 MW, assumed in most other studies. Non-optimal battery capacities have a stronger negative effect on the economic efficiency of the systems than non-optimal SoC setpoints. The results emphasise that the battery capacity is a critical investment decision.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/136574/
Document Type:Article
Title:Optimised capacity and operating strategy for providing frequency containment reserve with batteries and power-to-heat
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Schlachter, UliUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5063-025XUNSPECIFIED
Worschech, AlenaUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4189-4816UNSPECIFIED
Hanke, BenediktUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7927-0123UNSPECIFIED
Maydell, Karsten vonUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0966-5810UNSPECIFIED
Date:9 October 2020
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Energy Storage
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:Primary Control Reserve Degrees of Freedom Net Present Value approach Battery capacity sizing SoC management
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Technology, Innovation and Society
HGF - Program Themes:Renewable Energy and Material Resources for Sustainable Futures - Integrating at Different Scales
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E SY - Energy Systems Analysis
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Energy Systems Technology (old)
Location: Oldenburg
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Networked Energy Systems > Energy System Technology
Deposited By: Schlachter, Uli
Deposited On:20 Oct 2020 09:30
Last Modified:20 Oct 2020 09:30

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