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Diminished Glial Scar Formation at Hypergravity

Liemersdorf, Christian and Lichterfeld, Yannick and Frett, Timo and Hemmersbach, Ruth (2019) Diminished Glial Scar Formation at Hypergravity. 26th European Low Gravity Research Association Biennial Symposium and General Assembly (ELGRA), 2019-09-24 - 2019-09-27, Granada, Spain.

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Official URL: https://www.elgra2019.com/programme

Abstract

Introduction: Disturbed neuronal connectivity is the ultimate cause of disability in individuals with neurological disease including spinal cord injury, head trauma, and stroke. Functional neurological recovery is limited through an unfavorable balance between neuronal regrowth and glia scar formation. The prevalent type of glial cells are astrocytes, providing neurons with growth factors, nutrients and other promoting factors in the extracellular environment. In addition, these cells are predominant in the formation of the so-called glial scar, which not only sterically hinders neuronal re-growth but actively inhibits axonal regeneration processes. Neuronal growth as well as astroglial function and migration require dynamic cytoskeletal protein rearrangements. Because hypergravity stabilizes microtubules while de-stabilizing actin filaments, we hypothesized that experimental hypergravity would shift the balance between neuronal and astroglial growth in vitro. Methods: The exposure of cells to a defined level of hypergravity, preferably in the physiological range that would be tolerable also to human subjects, is the aim of the Multi-Sample Incubator Centrifuge (MuSIC) of the DLR. This centrifuge was designed to create hypergravity environments in a vibration-free manner in controlled incubation setups suitable for living samples. Moreover, observing cellular responses live during exposure to altered environmental stimuli is the key to yield a deeper understanding on underlying mechanisms and time frames, in which cells react and possibly adapt. Thus, we employed the DLR short-arm human centrifuge to install a live-cell imaging microscope system on a swing-out platform onto the centrifuge. Results: The formation of the glial scar requires dynamic cytoskeletal rearrangements, which are induced upon exposure of astrocytes to increased gravitational loads in the physiologically tolerable range of 2g. Under these conditions changes in astrocytic properties can already be observed. Astrocytes fail to spread as under normal conditions and show a reduced cell area. This reduction in cell spreading is not coincidental with a diminished proliferation rate, but correlated to impaired migratory behavior. Impairment in migration behavior is an important mechanism that will have a direct impact on glial scar formation and thus on neuronal regeneration in general.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/134365/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Diminished Glial Scar Formation at Hypergravity
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Liemersdorf, Christiangerman aerospace centre (dlr), institute of aerospace medicine, gravitational biology, cologne, germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8407-5226UNSPECIFIED
Lichterfeld, Yannickgerman aerospace centre (dlr), institute of aerospace medicine, gravitational biology, cologne, germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-8755-9920UNSPECIFIED
Frett, Timogerman aerospace centre (dlr), institute of aerospace medicine, gravitational biology, cologne, germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5572-1177UNSPECIFIED
Hemmersbach, Ruthgerman aerospace center (dlr), institute of aerospace medicine, gravitational biology, cologne, germanyhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5308-6715UNSPECIFIED
Date:24 September 2019
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Status:Published
Keywords:Glial Scar Formation, Hypergravity; Neuronal connectivity, Cytoskeletal rearrangements
Event Title:26th European Low Gravity Research Association Biennial Symposium and General Assembly (ELGRA)
Event Location:Granada, Spain
Event Type:international Conference
Event Start Date:24 September 2019
Event End Date:27 September 2019
Organizer:ELGRA and ESA
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Biowissenschaftliche Exp.-vorbereitung (old), R - Vorhaben Biowissenschaftliche Nutzerunterstützung (old), Vorhaben: NeuroTox (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Gravitational Biology
Deposited By: Duwe, Helmut
Deposited On:11 Mar 2020 09:26
Last Modified:24 Apr 2024 20:37

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