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Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and its Impact on Energy System Modeling

Wulff, Niklas and Steck, Felix and Gils, Hans Christian and Hoyer-Klick, Carsten and Van den Adel, Bent and Anderson, John (2020) Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and its Impact on Energy System Modeling. Energies, 13 (5), p. 1093. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). doi: 10.3390/en13051093. ISSN 1996-1073.

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Official URL: https://www.mdpi.com/1996-1073/13/5/1093

Abstract

Battery electric vehicles (BEV) provide an opportunity to balance supply and demand in future power systems with high shares of fluctuating renewable energy. Compared to other storage systems such as pumped-storage hydroelectricity, electric vehicle energy demand is highly dependent on charging and connection choices of vehicle users. We present a model framework of a utility-based stock and flow model, a utility-based microsimulation of charging decisions, and an energy system model including respective interfaces to assess how the representation of battery electric vehicle charging affects energy system optimization results. We then apply the framework to a scenario study for controlled charging of nine million electric vehicles in Germany in 2030. Assuming a respective fleet power demand of 27 TWh, we analyze the difference between power-system-based and vehicle user-based charging decisions in two respective scenarios. Our results show that taking into account vehicle users’ charging and connection decisions significantly decreases the load shifting potential of controlled charging. The analysis of marginal values of equations and variables of the optimization problem yields valuable insights on the importance of specific constraints and optimization variables. Assumptions on fleet battery availability and a detailed representation of fast charging are found to have a strong impact on wind curtailment, renewable energy feed-in, and required gas power plant flexibility. A representation of fleet connection to the grid in high temporal detail is less important. Peak load can be reduced by 5% and 3% in both scenarios, respectively. Shifted load is robust across sensitivity analyses while other model results such as curtailment are more sensitive to factors such as underlying data years. Analyzing the importance of increased BEV fleet battery availability for power systems with different weather and electricity demand characteristics should be further scrutinized.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/134334/
Document Type:Article
Title:Comparing Power-System and User-Oriented Battery Electric Vehicle Charging Representation and its Impact on Energy System Modeling
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Wulff, NiklasDLR - Institute for Engineering Thermodynamicshttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4659-6984
Steck, FelixDLR - Institute for Transport ResearchUNSPECIFIED
Gils, Hans ChristianDLR - Institute for Engineering Thermodynamicshttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6745-6609
Hoyer-Klick, CarstenDLR - Institute for Engineering Thermodynamicshttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7273-9176
Van den Adel, BentDLR - Institute for Vehicle ConceptsUNSPECIFIED
Anderson, JohnDLR - Institute for Transport Researchhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7615-7926
Date:2 March 2020
Journal or Publication Title:Energies
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:13
DOI :10.3390/en13051093
Page Range:p. 1093
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
Series Name:Special Issue "Model Coupling and Energy Systems"
ISSN:1996-1073
Status:Published
Keywords:electric vehicles; sector coupling; energy system optimization; renewable energy integration; REMix; charging behavior; marginal values
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr
Location: Berlin-Adlershof , Stuttgart
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transport Research
Institute of Vehicle Concepts
Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics > Energy Systems Analysis
Deposited By: Wulff, Niklas
Deposited On:09 Jun 2020 12:26
Last Modified:09 Jun 2020 12:26

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