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TransAID Deliverable 5.2: V2X-based cooperative sensing and driving in Transition Areas

Correa, Alejandro and Andert, Franz and Blokpoel, Robbin and Wojke, Nicolai and Thandavarayan, Gokulnath and Coll Perales, Baldomero and Sepulcre, Miguel and Gozalvez, Javier and Wijbenga, Anton and Schindler, Julian and Maerivoet, Sven (2019) TransAID Deliverable 5.2: V2X-based cooperative sensing and driving in Transition Areas. Project Report.

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Abstract

The objective of the TransAID (Transition Areas for Infrastructure-Assisted Driving) project is to deal with situations that cooperative and automated vehicles (CAV) might face when they are approaching to traffic conditions or zones that their automated systems are not able to handle by themselves. In those cases, the driver will be required to take control of the vehicle; this is the socalled Transition of Control (ToC). TransAID develops and demonstrates traffic management procedures and protocols to increase the overall traffic safety and efficiency specially at transition areas (i.e. zones where ToCs should take place) considering the coexistence of CAVs, autonomous vehicles (AVs), cooperative vehicles (CVs) and legacy vehicles (LV). TransAID measures require the use of communications between vehicles (V2V), and between vehicles and the road infrastructure (V2I) which are mainly used to gather information about the traffic stream through cooperative sensing and to support in the coordination of the vehicles maneuvers through cooperative maneuvers. In this context, this document shows the sensor devices and techniques to fuse their data that are being developed in TransAID. This includes techniques implemented at camera-equipped infrastructures that are able to detect, create bounding boxes and uniquely track objects using optical flow, and at the vehicle employing a hybrid sensor fusion strategy which contains a low-level LIDAR fusion module, that transforms the sensor data of multiple laser scanners into a common coordinate system, and an object-level fusion module, that fuses in-vehicle sensor data with data coming from neighbouring vehicles. The document also shows the cooperative techniques that are being designed to enable the Collective Perception Service (CPS) in line with ETSI. The ETSI's CPS entails the continuous exchange of Collective Perception Messages (CPM) that include a logic representation of the objects detected by the sensors and which are useful to improve the vehicles' and the infrastructure's perception of the driving environment. A key aspect for the efficient execution of the CPS is the definition of appropriate generation rules for the transmission of the CPMs, i.e. how often they are transmitted and what information do they include. This document includes a comprehensive analysis of the effect on the communications performance and information awareness of different CPM generation rules that are being considered in ETSI. In particular, the CPM generation rules follow a periodic policy (at 10Hz or 2Hz) where all detected objects are included, or a dynamic one where only the objects fulfilling some requirements are included. The conducted analysis has shown that there is a trade-off between perception capabilities and communications performance/scalability: vehicles detecting the same object(s) and including them in their CPMs create redundant detection which can help improve the perception capabilities but generate higher channel load levels and therefore impact the performance of V2X networks. The obtained results show that the ETSI's dynamic generation policy significantly reduces the communications channel load compared with the periodic ones, without compromising the perception capabilities. In the framework of TransAID, advanced policies will be proposed to further optimize the CPM, both its content and transmission triggering conditions, in order to achieve the necessary levels of redundancy and minimize the impact of the implementation of CPM in the stability and scalability of future V2X networks. In addition, this document investigates existing cooperative driving mechanisms, and specially the ETSI approach on manoeuvre coordination. The ETSI's Manoeuvre Coordination Service (MCS) is defining new concepts and messages which can be used to coordinate manoeuvres between vehicles. TransAID is actively participating in this process, e.g., by means of the definition of the Manoeuvre Coordination Message (MCM) and extending the role of the infrastructure to support the vehicles' manoeuvres coordination under certain scenarios and conditions. In this context, this document presents the message flow for the set of services that are being considered in TransAID. First, this document has analysed the traffic management measures defined by the different services of the TransAID project, and the required message flow for each service has been defined. Each message flow describes how, when, and where the vehicles communicate between them, and between them and the infrastructure, to execute the traffic management measures. Then, this document provides a preliminary analysis of the MCM generation rules. As highlighted for the CPMs, MCM messages should be transmitted with a frequency high enough to guarantee that the vehicles' manoeuvre coordination is possible. However, a too frequent exchange of MCM messages can increase the channel load to the point that it can negatively impact the performance and scalability of the V2X network. The conducted analysis has shown the importance of considering the vehicular context for the generation of the MCM messages in order to achieve a good balance between channel load and reliability for a safe execution of the cooperative manoeuvres.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/133911/
Document Type:Monograph (Project Report)
Title:TransAID Deliverable 5.2: V2X-based cooperative sensing and driving in Transition Areas
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Correa, AlejandroUniversity Miguel Hernández of ElcheUNSPECIFIED
Andert, FranzFranz.Andert (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-1638-7735
Blokpoel, Robbinrobbin.blokpoel (at) dynniq.comUNSPECIFIED
Wojke, NicolaiNicolai.Wojke (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Thandavarayan, GokulnathUniversity Miguel Hernández of ElcheUNSPECIFIED
Coll Perales, BaldomeroUniversity Miguel Hernández of ElcheUNSPECIFIED
Sepulcre, MiguelUniversity Miguel Hernández of ElcheUNSPECIFIED
Gozalvez, JavierUniversity Miguel Hernandez of ElcheUNSPECIFIED
Wijbenga, AntonMAPtmUNSPECIFIED
Schindler, Julianjulian.schindler (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5398-8217
Maerivoet, SvenTMLUNSPECIFIED
Date:2019
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Status:Published
Keywords:transition areas; V2X communication; cooperative sensing; cooperative autoamted driving
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Energie und Verkehr
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems > Data Management and Knowledge Discovery
Institute of Transportation Systems > Development of vehicle functions
Deposited By: Schindler, Julian
Deposited On:29 Jan 2020 11:45
Last Modified:29 Jan 2020 11:45

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