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MUSCLE AND TENDON INTERACTION OF THE HUMAN GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS DURING BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED RUNNING USING THE VERTICAL TREADMILL FACILITY

Richter, C. and Braunstein, B. and Stäudle, Benjamin and Attias, J. and Suess, A. and Weber, T. and Mileva, K. and Rittweger, Jörn and Green, D.A. and Albracht, Kirsten (2019) MUSCLE AND TENDON INTERACTION OF THE HUMAN GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS DURING BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED RUNNING USING THE VERTICAL TREADMILL FACILITY. In: BOOK OF ABSTRACTS, p. 49. ECSS. 24th Annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE, 2-6 July 2019, Prague, Czech Republic.

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Official URL: http://wp1191596.server-he.de/DATA/CONGRESSES/PRAGUE2019/Documents/Prague_BOA_Web.pdf

Abstract

INTRODUCTION: To attenuate physiological deconditioning due to a lack of gravity, current ISS crew members perform a daily exercise countermeasure program, including frequent treadmill running. However, the maximum vertical loading applied is usually not more than 70-80% of body weight (BW) [1] leading to a reduced requirement of the gastrocnemius medialis (GM) muscle-tendon unit (MTU) to generate force and work to support and propel the human body [2]. As lower forces are acting on the Achilles tendon during unloading, we expect a smaller tendon elongation but its impact on fascicle and MTU length is still unknown. Therefore, the aim of this study was to confirm a smaller tendon elongation and to determine, whether it is compensated by a shorter MTU (different joint angles), longer fascicles or smaller pennation during running at 70% and 38% BW (Mars G). METHODS: Eight male subjects (31.9 ± 4.7 yrs) ran at 125% of their preferred walk-to-run transition speed at 70% and 38% BW on the vertical treadmill facility, and with 100% BW. GM fascicle length and pennation were measured via ultrasonography. Further, joint kinematics (goniometers) were analyzed to determine GM MTU length. Tendon length was estimated by using a MTU model [3]. Plantar pressure (loadsol) was measured to determine stance phase. One-way repeated measures ANOVA for dependent samples (38% vs 70% vs 100% BW) followed by post-hoc tests with Holm-Sidaks corrections for multiple comparisons were used to test for significant differences in joint angles, MTU and tendon elongation, fascicle length and pennation when running at different loadings. RESULTS: Compared to 100% BW, maximum ankle dorsiflexion and knee flexion during early stance was significantly smaller at 38% BW (- 6.4 ± 3.6°, p = 0.003; -8.1 ± 3.8°, p = 0.001), whereas for 70% BW no significant differences were found. Tendon and MTU elongation was significantly smaller at 70% BW (18.70 ± 13.7%, p = 0.005; 25.50 ± 20.3%, p = 0.009) and 38% BW (35.2 ± 11.5%, p < 0.001; 47.3 ± 17.3%, p < 0.001). Although, GM fascicles operated at a significantly longer length and smaller pennation at 70% BW (8.9 ± 5.8%, p = 0.024; 8 ± 4.4%, p = 0.015) and 38% BW (12.4 ± 6.4%, p < 0.001; 9.5 ± 6%, p = 0.015), fascicle shortening showed no significant differences. CONCLUSION: Reduced tendon elongation proves that less force is acting on the Achilles tendon resulting in a reduced storage of elastic energy. The reduced tendon elongation has shown to be compensated by a smaller MTU elongation, smaller pennation and longer fascicles, which leads to a more economical force generation due to the force-length relationship. These effects are observed at 70% and exaggerated at 38% BW. To determine if running with 70% BW is sufficient to maintain muscle mass and function, additional measurements of torque and neuromuscular activation are required to estimate the strain on the GM.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/133717/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:MUSCLE AND TENDON INTERACTION OF THE HUMAN GASTROCNEMIUS MEDIALIS DURING BODY WEIGHT SUPPORTED RUNNING USING THE VERTICAL TREADMILL FACILITY
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Richter, C.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Braunstein, B.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stäudle, BenjaminFachhochschule AachenUNSPECIFIED
Attias, J.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Suess, A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Weber, T.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mileva, K.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rittweger, JörnJoern.Rittweger (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2223-8963
Green, D.A.Centre of Human & Aerospace Physiological Sciences, King's College London, London, UK.UNSPECIFIED
Albracht, KirstenGerman Sport University Colognehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4271-2511
Date:July 2019
Journal or Publication Title:BOOK OF ABSTRACTS
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Page Range:p. 49
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Bunc, V.UNSPECIFIED
Tsolakidis, E.UNSPECIFIED
Publisher:ECSS
Series Name:24th Annual Congress
Status:Published
Keywords:GASTROCNEMIUS; tendon Elongation; fascicle length
Event Title:24th Annual Congress of the EUROPEAN COLLEGE OF SPORT SCIENCE
Event Location:Prague, Czech Republic
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:2-6 July 2019
Organizer:Charles University Prague
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Systemphysiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Muscle and Bone Metabolism
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:21 Jan 2020 09:40
Last Modified:21 Jan 2020 09:40

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