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A simulation case-study on the influence of plate lines on the severity of wake vortex encounters in ground proximity

Vechtel, Dennis and Stephan, Anton and Holzäpfel, Frank (2019) A simulation case-study on the influence of plate lines on the severity of wake vortex encounters in ground proximity. Project Report.

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Close to ground the behaviour of wake vortices changes in comparison to out of ground effect. Whilst vortices descend in free air due to their mutual induced velocities, they are hindered in sinking in presence of ground. This also changes the risk to encounter the wake of a preceding aircraft. Furthermore, wake encounters in ground effect are especially critical due to the nearness of the ground. Recent studies showed that vortex decay in ground proximity can be accelerated by installing a series of plates in lines perpendicular to the flight direction (so-called plate lines). This study analyses whether the accelerated vortex decay also results in lesser encounter severity in terms of aircraft reaction and pilot acceptance. Flow fields were generated by coupled RANS-LES simulations of an A340-sized aircraft in ground effect with light crosswind with and without plate lines for different vortex ages were implemented in a six-degrees-of-freedom aircraft simulation of an A320-sized aircraft. Offline simulations with autopilot engaged in autoland-mode showed a significant reduction of the aircraft response during the wake encounter with the plate lines. This reduction is indeed more pronounced with younger vortices but is still noticeable with old vortices. Simulations with pilots-in-the-loop in a full-flight simulator applying the same simulation model for the encountering aircraft also show a reduction of the aircraft response during manual landing as well as improved subjective pilot acceptance. Plate lines are therefore considered an effective means for either increasing flight safety with current minimum separations or maintaining the same level of safety in case that the minimum separations are reduced in the future.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/133457/
Document Type:Monograph (Project Report)
Title:A simulation case-study on the influence of plate lines on the severity of wake vortex encounters in ground proximity
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Vechtel, DennisUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1681-7333UNSPECIFIED
Holzäpfel, FrankUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3182-1832UNSPECIFIED
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:Yes
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Holzäpfel, FrankUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3182-1832UNSPECIFIED
Schwarz, CarstenUNSPECIFIEDhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6581-0096UNSPECIFIED
Keywords:wake vortex ground effect wake encounter
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:fixed-wing aircraft
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AR - Aircraft Research
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Systems and Cabin (old)
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Flight Systems > Flight Dynamics and Simulation
Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Transport Meteorology
Deposited By: Vechtel, Dennis
Deposited On:14 Jan 2020 14:53
Last Modified:31 Mar 2020 14:48

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