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Talking with CLAUDI - Using virtual agents for an immersive approach to measure workload and situation awareness in human-in-the-loop simulations

Dausch, Christina and Schier, Sebastian and Carstengerdes, Nils and Papenfuss, Anne (2019) Talking with CLAUDI - Using virtual agents for an immersive approach to measure workload and situation awareness in human-in-the-loop simulations. Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrt Kongress 2019, 30. Sept. - 02. Okt. 2019, Darmstadt, Deutschland.

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One of the most essential parts in developing new systems and procedures for the future air traffic system is to prove feasibility. EUROCONTROLs guideline for operational concept validation defines an own phase where feasibility should be examined and improved. Among others, human-in-the-loop simulations (HITL) are suggested to examine the human factors issues of the new system or procedure within this phase. Analyzing the results of HITL simulations, workload and situation awareness are two major key performance factors. In order to assess a new system or procedure as feasible, workload and situation awareness of the operational staff using the new tools should stay within an acceptable range to assure safe and sustainable operations. Measuring workload and situation awareness is a challenge: Both indicators are subjective by nature and their operationalization by direct and objective measurements is complex. Therefore methods like SPAM and SARA-T have been developed. Following these methods, work-related questions are posed to operational experts. Workload and situation awareness are assessed by response time and the correctness of the answers. SPAM and SARA-T can be applied within HITL simulations and offer the advantage that the answers can be verified directly based on the objective simulation data. Nevertheless, SPAM and SARA-T also affect adversely the simulation. Answering operational questions is within the standard workflow of the participants, but in real operations a communication partner exists who poses these questions. This can be an adjacent sector controller, asking the expected number of flights within the next minutes or airport staff querying the estimated departure time of a distinct flight. In HITL simulation these communication partners generally do not participate. In consequence, simulation staff needs to raise the questions, leading to higher effort or additional demand for simulation staff. This paper addresses the workload and situation awareness measurement in HITL simulations using the virtual agent CLAUDI. CLAUDI is able to emulate operational experts who do not take part in the simulation. Using CLAUDI the work-related questions can be posed by a virtual representation of the real communication partner. As such no additional effort of simulation staff is needed. Moreover the timing and the content of the questions can be precisely defined and instantaneously measured including dynamic adaptions within the simulation (e.g. posing fewer questions, when an overload is already detected). To prove this potential, CLAUDI was adapted and used within an airport management HITL simulation. The results of CLAUDIs workload and situation awareness measures are compared with standard questionnaire results and show the benefit of this approach.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/130727/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Talking with CLAUDI - Using virtual agents for an immersive approach to measure workload and situation awareness in human-in-the-loop simulations
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Dausch, Christinachristina.dausch (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Schier, Sebastiansebastian.schier (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Carstengerdes, NilsNils.Carstengerdes (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4056-1502
Papenfuss, Anneanne.papenfuss (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:October 2019
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Keywords:airport management, human in the loop, simulation, virtual agent, workload, situation awareness
Event Title:Deutscher Luft- und Raumfahrt Kongress 2019
Event Location:Darmstadt, Deutschland
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:30. Sept. - 02. Okt. 2019
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:air traffic management and operations
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L AO - Air Traffic Management and Operation
DLR - Research theme (Project):L - Air Traffic Concepts and Operation (old)
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Flight Guidance > ATM-Simulation
Deposited By: Schier, Sebastian
Deposited On:19 Nov 2019 09:02
Last Modified:16 Mar 2021 18:20

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