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Micro- and Macrokinetics of the nitrite formation in ‘Solar Salt’

Sötz, Veronika and Bonk, Alexander and de Graaff, Marius and Bauer, Thomas (2019) Micro- and Macrokinetics of the nitrite formation in ‘Solar Salt’. Eurotherm Seminar #112 Advances in Thermal Energy Storage, 15.-17. Mai 2019, Lleida, Spanien. ISBN 9788491441557

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Abstract

A nitrate salt mixture with the commercial name ‘Solar Salt’ is the state-of-the-art storage material for sensible heat storage in concentrating solar power (CSP) plants. The storage units operate up to a temperature of about 565 °C. A higher maximum temperature improves the efficiency of the conversion heat-to-power, but also drives decomposition reactions. The decomposition products include harmful gases and corrosive ionic species. We investigated the intrinsic reaction kinetics of the reversible reaction of nitrate ions to nitrite ions and oxygen, which is fundamental in the reaction sequence. The applied rate law is expected to comprise both forward and reverse reaction, the chemical equilibrium, and the effect of the oxygen partial pressure. Consistent with the Arrhenius equation, the rate constants and consequently also the macroscopic reaction velocity increase with temperature. Kinetics description of the reaction in terms of a mathematical equation is included in a predictive model of the ‘Solar Salt’ composition. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) experiments revealed that mass transport limitations can be neglected in salt films with small thicknesses. Measurements with samples of 1 mm and smaller can be applied for investigation of reaction kinetics. A methodology was applied that allows separation of salt evaporation effects, and formation of reaction gases during the data analysis procedure. The reaction kinetics are analyzed with a series of TGA experiments with different temperature profiles. The results are used to validate a mechanistic reaction model that is based on a kinetic rate law. The obtained deviations of the simulation curves from experimental results are discussed with regard to the applicability of the microkinetics description. Deviations are higher for temperatures up to 450 °C, and decrease considerably above 500 °C, which is ascribed to smaller relative fluctuations of the TGA signal at high temperatures. It should be emphasized that this study is the first to validate intrinsic reaction kinetics of the nitrite and nitrate formation in ‘Solar Salt’. Finally, the reaction kinetics from the TGA experiments are compared to appropriate larger scale experiments with sample thicknesses of around 3 and 46 cm. The reaction is significantly decelerated leading to the conclusion that, besides intrinsic reaction kinetics, mass transport plays a major role in those experiments. Gas bubble formation and diffusion of oxygen gas in the molten salt seem to contribute to the macrokinetics.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/127807/
Document Type:Conference or Workshop Item (Speech)
Title:Micro- and Macrokinetics of the nitrite formation in ‘Solar Salt’
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Sötz, VeronikaVeronika.Soetz (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8309-6612
Bonk, AlexanderAlexander.Bonk (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0676-7267
de Graaff, MariusMarius.Graaff (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Bauer, Thomasthomas.bauer (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4080-7944
Date:May 2019
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
ISBN:9788491441557
Status:Published
Keywords:Thermal energy storage, sensible heat storage, molten nitrate salt, Solar Salt, decomposition reactions, reaction kinetics.
Event Title:Eurotherm Seminar #112 Advances in Thermal Energy Storage
Event Location:Lleida, Spanien
Event Type:international Conference
Event Dates:15.-17. Mai 2019
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Storage and Cross-linked Infrastructures
HGF - Program Themes:Thermal Energy Storage
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E SP - Energy Storage
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Thermochemical Processes (Storage)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics > Thermal Process Technology
Deposited By: Sötz, Veronika
Deposited On:12 Jul 2019 13:02
Last Modified:22 Aug 2019 16:10

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