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Detection and Doppler monitoring of K2-285 (EPIC 246471491), a system of four transiting planets smaller than Neptune

Palle, E. and Nowak, G. and Luque, R. and Hidalgo, D. and Barragan, O. and Prieto-Arranz, J. and Hirano, T. and Fridlund, M. and Gandolfi, D. and Livingston, J. and Dai, F. and Morales, J. C. and Lafarga, M. and Albrecht, S. and Alonso, R. and Amado, P. J. and Caballero, J. A. and Cabrera Perez, Juan and Cochran, W. D. and Csizmadia, Szilard and Deeg, H. and Eigmüller, Philipp and Endl, M. and Erikson, A and Fukui, A. and Guenther, E. W. and Grziwa, S. and Hatzes, A. P. and Korth, J. and Kurster, M. and Kuzuhara, M. and Montanes Rodriguez, P. and Murgas, F. and Narita, N. and Nespral, D. and Patzold, M. and Persson, C. M. and Quirrenbach, A. and Rauer, H and Redfield, S. and Reiners, A. and Ribas, I. and Smith, Alexis and Van Eylen, V. and Winn, J. N. and Zechmeister, M. (2019) Detection and Doppler monitoring of K2-285 (EPIC 246471491), a system of four transiting planets smaller than Neptune. Astronomy & Astrophysics, 623, A41. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201834001 ISSN 0004-6361

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Abstract

Context. The Kepler extended mission, also known as K2, has provided the community with a wealth of planetary candidates that orbit stars typically much brighter than the targets of the original mission. These planet candidates are suitable for further spectroscopic follow-up and precise mass determinations, leading ultimately to the construction of empirical mass-radius diagrams. Particularly interesting is to constrain the properties of planets that are between Earth and Neptune in size, the most abundant type of planet orbiting Sun-like stars with periods of less than a few years. Aims: Among many other K2 candidates, we discovered a multi-planetary system around EPIC 246471491, referred to henceforth as K2-285, which contains four planets, ranging in size from twice the size of Earth to nearly the size of Neptune. We aim here at confirming their planetary nature and characterizing the properties of this system. Methods: We measure the mass of the planets of the K2-285 system by means of precise radial-velocity measurements using the CARMENES spectrograph and the HARPS-N spectrograph. Results: With our data we are able to determine the mass of the two inner planets of the system with a precision better than 15%, and place upper limits on the masses of the two outer planets. Conclusions: We find that K2-285b has a mass of Mb = 9.68-1.37+1.21 M⊕ and a radius of Rb = 2.59-0.06+0.06 R⊕, yielding a mean density of rhob = 3.07-0.45+0.45 g cm-3, while K2-285c has a mass of Mc = 15.68-2.13+2.28 M⊕, radius of Rc = 3.53-0.08+0.08 R⊕, and a mean density of rhoc = 1.95-0.28+0.32 g cm-3. For K2-285d (Rd = 2.48-0.06+0.06 R⊕) and K2-285e (Re = 1.95-0.05+0.05 R⊕), the upper limits for the masses are 6.5 M⊕ and 10.7 M⊕, respectively. The system is thus composed of an (almost) Neptune-twin planet (in mass and radius), two sub-Neptunes with very different densities and presumably bulk composition, and a fourth planet in the outermost orbit that resides right in the middle of the super-Earth/sub-Neptune radius gap. Future comparative planetology studies of this system would provide useful insights into planetary formation, and also a good test of atmospheric escape and evolution theories.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/127404/
Document Type:Article
Title:Detection and Doppler monitoring of K2-285 (EPIC 246471491), a system of four transiting planets smaller than Neptune
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Palle, E.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain );; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Nowak, G.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Luque, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Hidalgo, D.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Barragan, O.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Prieto-Arranz, J.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Hirano, T.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Tokyo Institute of Technology, 2-12-1 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8551, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Fridlund, M.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA Leiden, The Netherlands; Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Gandolfi, D.Dipartimento di Fisica, Universita di Torino, Via P. Giuria 1, 10125, Torino, ItalyUNSPECIFIED
Livingston, J.Department of Astronomy, The University of Tokyo, 7-3-1 Hongo, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, 113-0033, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Dai, F.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USA; Department of Physics and Kavli Institute for Astrophysics and Space Research, Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, 02139, USAUNSPECIFIED
Morales, J. C.Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE, CSIC), C/Can Magrans, s/n, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Lafarga, M.Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE, CSIC), C/Can Magrans, s/n, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Albrecht, S.Stellar Astrophysics Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Aarhus University, Ny Munkegade 120, 8000, Aarhus C, DenmarkUNSPECIFIED
Alonso, R.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Amado, P. J.Instituto de Astrofisica de Andalucia (IAA-CSIC), Glorieta de la Astronomia s/n, 18008, Granada, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Caballero, J. A.Centro de Astrobiologia (CSIC-INTA), ESAC Campus, Camino Bajo del Castillo s/n, 28692, Villanueva de la Canada, Madrid, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Cabrera Perez, JuanJuan.Cabrera (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Cochran, W. D.Institute of Geological Sciences, Freie Universitat Berlin, Malteserstr. 74-100, 12249, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Csizmadia, Szilardszilard.csizmadia (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Deeg, H.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Eigmüller, PhilippPhilipp.Eigmueller (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4096-0594
Endl, M.Department of Astronomy and McDonald Observatory, University of Texas at Austin, 2515 Speedway, Stop C1400, Austin, TX, 78712, USAUNSPECIFIED
Erikson, Aanders.erikson (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Fukui, A.Okayama Astrophysical Observatory, National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, Asakuchi, Okayama, 719-0232, Japan; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Guenther, E. W.Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778, Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Grziwa, S.Rheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Koln, Aachener Strasse 209, 50931, Koln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hatzes, A. P.Thuringer Landessternwarte Tautenburg, Sternwarte 5, 07778, Tautenburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Korth, J.Rheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Koln, Aachener Strasse 209, 50931, Koln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Kurster, M.Max-Planck-Institut fur Astronomie, Konigstuhl 17, 69117, Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Kuzuhara, M.Astrobiology Center, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Montanes Rodriguez, P.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Murgas, F.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Narita, N.Astrobiology Center, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan; National Astronomical Observatory of Japan, NINS, 2-21-1 Osawa, Mitaka, Tokyo, 181-8588, Japan; Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Nespral, D.Instituto de Astrofisica de Canarias (IAC), 38205, La Laguna, Tenerife, Spain; Departamento de Astrofisica, Universidad de La Laguna (ULL), 38206, La Laguna, Tenerife, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Patzold, M.Rheinisches Institut fur Umweltforschung an der Universitat zu Koln, Aachener Strasse 209, 50931, Koln, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Persson, C. M.Department of Space, Earth and Environment, Chalmers University of Technology, Onsala Space Observatory, 439 92, Onsala, SwedenUNSPECIFIED
Quirrenbach, A.Landessternwarte, Zentrum fur Astronomie der Universtat Heidelberg, Konigstuhl 12, 69117, Heidelberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Rauer, Hheiker.rauer (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Redfield, S.Astronomy Department and Van Vleck Observatory, Wesleyan University, Middletown, CT, 06459, USAUNSPECIFIED
Reiners, A.Institut fur Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitat, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077, Gottingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Ribas, I.Institut de Ciencies de l' Espai (ICE, CSIC), C/Can Magrans, s/n, Campus UAB, 08193, Bellaterra, Spain; Institut d'Estudis Espacials de Catalunya (IEEC), 08034, Barcelona, SpainUNSPECIFIED
Smith, AlexisAlexis.Smith (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Van Eylen, V.Leiden Observatory, Leiden University, 2333CA Leiden, The NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Winn, J. N.Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, 4 Ivy Lane, Princeton, NJ, 08544, USAUNSPECIFIED
Zechmeister, M.Institut fur Astrophysik, Georg-August-Universitat, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077, Gottingen, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2019
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:623
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/201834001
Page Range:A41
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:planetary systems, planets and satellites: dynamical evolution and stability, planets and satellites: detection, planets and satellites: fundamental parameters, planets and satellites: atmospheres
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Projekt COROT Beteiligung
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Extrasolar Planets and Atmospheres
Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Smith, Alexis
Deposited On:14 Jun 2019 09:49
Last Modified:14 Jun 2019 09:49

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