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The Out-of-the-Loop concept in automated driving: proposed definition, measures and implications

Merat, Natasha and Seppelt, Bobbie and Louw, Tyron and Engström, Johan and Lee, John and Johansson, Emma and Green, Charles and Kitazaki, Satoshi and Monk, Chris and Itoh, Makoto and McGhee, Daniel and Sunda, Takashi and Unoura, Kiyozumi and Victor, Trent and Schieben, Anna Maria and Keinath, Andreas (2018) The Out-of-the-Loop concept in automated driving: proposed definition, measures and implications. Cognition, Technology and Work. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s10111-018-0525-8 ISSN 1435-5558

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Abstract

Despite an abundant use of the term Out of the loop (OOTL) in the context of automated driving and human factors research, there is currently a lack of consensus on its precise defnition, how it can be measured, and the practical implications of being in or out of the loop during automated driving. The main objective of this paper is to consider the above issues, with the goal of achieving a shared understanding of the OOTL concept between academics and practitioners. To this end, the paper reviews existing defnitions of OOTL and outlines a set of concepts, which, based on the human factors and driver behaviour literature, could serve as the basis for a commonly-agreed defnition. Following a series of working group meetings between representatives from academia, research institutions and industrial partners across Europe, North America, and Japan, we suggest a precise defnition of being in, out, and on the loop in the driving context. These defnitions are linked directly to whether or not the driver is in physical control of the vehicle, and also the degree of situation monitoring required and afforded by the driver. A consideration of how this defnition can be operationalized and measured in empirical studies is then provided, and the paper concludes with a short overview of the implications of this defnition for the development of automated driving functions.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/125908/
Document Type:Article
Title:The Out-of-the-Loop concept in automated driving: proposed definition, measures and implications
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Merat, NatashaITS LeedsUNSPECIFIED
Seppelt, BobbieMITUNSPECIFIED
Louw, TyronITS LeedsUNSPECIFIED
Engström, JohanVirginia TechUNSPECIFIED
Lee, JohnUniversity WisconsinUNSPECIFIED
Johansson, EmmaVolvo Grou Truck TechnologyUNSPECIFIED
Green, CharlesGeneral MotorsUNSPECIFIED
Kitazaki, SatoshiAISTUNSPECIFIED
Monk, ChrisNHTSAUNSPECIFIED
Itoh, MakotoUniversity of TsukubaUNSPECIFIED
McGhee, DanielUniversity of IowaUNSPECIFIED
Sunda, TakashiNissanUNSPECIFIED
Unoura, KiyozumiHondaUNSPECIFIED
Victor, TrentVolvo CarsUNSPECIFIED
Schieben, Anna MariaAnna.Schieben (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3608-2004
Keinath, AndreasBMWUNSPECIFIED
Date:15 September 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Cognition, Technology and Work
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1007/s10111-018-0525-8
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:1435-5558
Status:Published
Keywords:Out of the Loop; Automated driving; Autonomous Driver behaviour; Human factors
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Terrestrial Vehicles (old)
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V BF - Bodengebundene Fahrzeuge
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Fahrzeugintelligenz (old)
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Transportation Systems
Deposited By: Schieben, Anna Maria
Deposited On:21 Jan 2019 10:30
Last Modified:06 Sep 2019 15:23

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