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Arterial Hypertension

Jordan, Jens and Kurschat, Christine and Reuter, Hannes (2018) Arterial Hypertension. Deutsches Ärzteblatt, 2018 (115), pp. 557-568. Deutscher Aerzte-Verlag GmbH. DOI: 10.3238/arztebl.2018.0557 ISSN 0012-1207

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Official URL: https://www.aerzteblatt.de/int/archive/article/199598

Abstract

BACKGROUND: Essential arterial hypertension is one of the main treatable cardiovascular risk factors. In Germany, approximately 13% of women and 18% of men have uncontrolled high blood pressure (≥ 140/90 mmHg). METHODS: This review is based on pertinent publications retrieved by a selective literature search in PubMed. RESULTS: Arterial hypertension is diagnosed when repeated measurements in a doctor's office yield values of 140/90 mmHg or higher. The diagnosis should be confirmed by 24-hour ambulatory blood pressure monitoring or by home measurement. Further risk factors and end-organ damage should be considered as well. According to the current European guidelines, the target blood pressure for all patients, including those with diabetes mellitus or renal failure, is <140/90 mmHg. If the treatment is well tolerated, further lowering of blood pressure, with a defined lower limit, is recommended for most patients. The main non-pharmacological measures against high blood pressure are reduction of salt in the diet, avoidance of excessive alcohol consumption, smoking cessation, a balanced diet, physical exercise, and weight loss. The first-line drugs for arterial hypertension include long-acting dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors or angiotensin-receptor blockers, and thiazide-like diuretics. Mineralocorticoid-receptor blockers are effective in patients whose blood pressure cannot be brought into acceptable range with first-line drugs. CONCLUSION: In most patients with essential hypertension, the blood pressure can be well controlled and the cardiovascular risk reduced through a combination of lifestyle interventions and first-line antihypertensive drugs.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/125384/
Document Type:Article
Title:Arterial Hypertension
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Jordan, JensInstitute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.UNSPECIFIED
Kurschat, ChristineDepartment II of Internal Medicine, Divisions of Nephrology, Rheumatology, Diabetes and General Internal Medicine, University Hospital of Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Reuter, HannesDepartment of Internal Medicine and Cardiology, Evangelisches Klinikum Köln Weyertal, CologneUNSPECIFIED
Date:20 August 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Deutsches Ärzteblatt
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
Volume:2018
DOI :10.3238/arztebl.2018.0557
Page Range:pp. 557-568
Publisher:Deutscher Aerzte-Verlag GmbH
ISSN:0012-1207
Status:Published
Keywords:arterial Hypertension; blood pressure; diet; nutrition; lifestyle interventions
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Systemphysiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Cardiovascular Medicine in Aerospace
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:19 Dec 2018 09:54
Last Modified:19 Dec 2018 09:54

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