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Mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere according to measurements by the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: 2014-2016

Slemr, Franz and Weigelt, Andreas and Ebinghaus, Ralf and Bieser, Johannes and Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M. and Rauthe-Schöch, Armin and Hermann, Markus and Martinsson, Bengt G. and van Velthoven, Peter and Bönisch, Harald and Neumaier, Marco and Zahn, Andeas and Ziereis, Helmut (2018) Mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere according to measurements by the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: 2014-2016. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP), 18 (16), pp. 12329-12343. Copernicus Publications. DOI: 10.5194/acp-18-12329-2018 ISSN 1680-7316

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Official URL: https://doi.org/10.5194/acp-18-12329-2018

Abstract

Mercury was measured onboard the IAGOSCARIBIC passenger aircraft from May 2005 until February 2016 during near monthly sequences of mostly four intercontinental flights from Germany to destinations in North and South America, Africa and South and East Asia. Most of these mercury data were obtained using an internal default signal integration procedure of the Tekran Instrument but since April 2014 more precise and accurate data were obtained using post-flight manual integration of the Instrument raw signal. In this paper we use the latter data. Increased upper tropospheric total mercury (TM) concentrations due to large scale biomass burning were observed in the upper troposphere (UT) at the equator and southern latitudes during the flights to Latin America and South Africa in boreal autumn (SON) and boreal winter (DJF). TM concentrations in the lowermost stratosphere (LMS) decrease with altitude above the thermal tropopause but the gradient is less steep than reported before. Seasonal variation of the vertical TM distribution in the UT and LMS is similar to that of other trace gases with surface sources and stratospheric sinks. Speciation experiments suggest comparable TM and gaseous elementary mercury (GEM) concentrations at and below the tropopause leaving little space for Hg2C (TM − GEM) being the dominating component of TM here. In the stratosphere significant GEM concentrations were found to exist up to 4 km altitude above the thermal tropopause. Correlations with N2O as a reference tracer suggest stratospheric lifetimes of 72±37 and 74±27 years for TM and GEM, respectively, comparable to the stratospheric lifetime of COS. This coincidence, combined with pieces of evidence from us and other researchers, corroborates the hypothesis that Hg2C formed by oxidation in the stratosphere attaches to sulfate particles formed mainly by oxidation of COS and is removed with them from the stratosphere by air mass exchange, gravitational sedimentation and cloud scavenging processes.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/123658/
Document Type:Article
Title:Mercury distribution in the upper troposphere and lowermost stratosphere according to measurements by the IAGOS-CARIBIC observatory: 2014-2016
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Slemr, FranzMPI Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIED
Weigelt, AndreasHelmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtUNSPECIFIED
Ebinghaus, RalfHelmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtUNSPECIFIED
Bieser, JohannesHelmholtz-Zentrum GeesthachtUNSPECIFIED
Brenninkmeijer, Carl A. M.MPI Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIED
Rauthe-Schöch, ArminMPI Chemie, MainzUNSPECIFIED
Hermann, MarkusTROPOS, LeipzigUNSPECIFIED
Martinsson, Bengt G.Univ. of Lund, SchwedenUNSPECIFIED
van Velthoven, PeterKNMI, de Bilt, NiederlandeUNSPECIFIED
Bönisch, HaraldKIT, KarlsruheUNSPECIFIED
Neumaier, MarcoKIT, KarlsruheUNSPECIFIED
Zahn, AndeasKIT, KarlsruheUNSPECIFIED
Ziereis, HelmutDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIED
Date:27 August 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics (ACP)
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:18
DOI :10.5194/acp-18-12329-2018
Page Range:pp. 12329-12343
Publisher:Copernicus Publications
ISSN:1680-7316
Status:Published
Keywords:IAGOS-CARIBIC, Mercury, upper troposphere, lower stratosphere
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Atmosphären- und Klimaforschung
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Atmospheric Trace Species
Deposited By: Ziereis, Helmut
Deposited On:23 Nov 2018 14:01
Last Modified:02 May 2019 14:00

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