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Anatomy of the massive star-forming region S106. The OI 63 micron line observed with GREAT/SOFIA as a versatile diagnostic tool for the evolution of massive stars

Schneider, Nicola and Röllig, M. and Simon, Robert and Wiesemeyer, H. and Gusdorf, A. and Stutzki, Jürgen and Güsten, Rolf and Bontemps, S. and Comeron, F. and Csengeri, T. and Adams, J. D. and Richter, Heiko (2018) Anatomy of the massive star-forming region S106. The OI 63 micron line observed with GREAT/SOFIA as a versatile diagnostic tool for the evolution of massive stars. Astronomy & Astrophysics. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/0004-6361/201732508 ISSN 0004-6361

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Official URL: http://arxiv.org/abs/1806.00991

Abstract

The central area (4000×4000) of the bipolar nebula S106 was mapped in the [O I] line at 63.2 µm (4.74 THz) with high angular (600) and spectral (0.24 MHz) resolution, using the GREAT heterodyne receiver on board SOFIA. The spatial and spectral emission Distribution of [O I] is compared to emission in the CO 16!15, [C II] 158 µm, and CO 11!10 lines, mm-molecular lines, and continuum. The [O I] emission is composed of several velocity components in the range from –30 km s−1 to 25 km s−1. The high-velocity blue- and redshifted emission (v=–30 to –9 km s−1 and 8 to 25 km s−1) can be explained as arising from accelerated photodissociated gas associated with a dark lane close to the massive binary system S106 IR, and from shocks caused by the stellar wind and/or a disk– envelope interaction. At velocities from –9 to –4 km s−1 and from 0.5 to 8 km s−1 line wings are observed in most of the lines that we attribute to cooling in photodissociation regions (PDRs) created by the ionizing radiation impinging on the cavity walls. The velocity range from –4 to 0.5 km s−1 is dominated by emission from the clumpy molecular cloud, and the [O I], [C II], and high-J CO lines are excited in PDRs on clump surfaces that are illuminated by the central stars. Modelling the line emission in the different velocity ranges with the KOSMA-τ code constrains a radiation field χ of a few times 104 and densities n of a few times 104 cm−3. Considering self-absorption of the [O I] line results in higher densities (up to 106 cm−3) only for the gas component seen at high blue- and red velocities. We thus confirm the scenario found in other studies that the emission of these lines can be explained by a two-phase PDR, but attribute the high-density gas to the high-velocity component only. The dark lane has a mass of ∼275 M and shows a velocity difference of ∼1.4 km s−1 along its projected length of ∼1 pc, determined from H13CO+ 1!0 mapping. Its nature depends on the geometry and can be interpreted as a massive accretion flow (infall rate of ∼2.5 10−4 M /yr), or the remains of it, linked to S106 IR/FIR. The most likely explanation is that the binary system is at a stage of its evolution where gas accretion is counteracted by the stellar winds and radiation, leading to the very complex observed spatial and kinematic emission distribution of the various tracers

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/121563/
Document Type:Article
Title:Anatomy of the massive star-forming region S106. The OI 63 micron line observed with GREAT/SOFIA as a versatile diagnostic tool for the evolution of massive stars
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Schneider, Nicolanicola.schneider (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Röllig, M.Uni KölnUNSPECIFIED
Simon, RobertUni KölnUNSPECIFIED
Wiesemeyer, H.Max- Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieUNSPECIFIED
Gusdorf, A.LERMAUNSPECIFIED
Stutzki, JürgenKOSMA, I. Physikalisches Institut Universität zu KölnUNSPECIFIED
Güsten, RolfMax-Planck-Institut für Radioastronomie, BonnUNSPECIFIED
Bontemps, S.Universite BordeauxUNSPECIFIED
Comeron, F.ESO Santiago ChileUNSPECIFIED
Csengeri, T.Max-Planck-Institut für RadioastronomieUNSPECIFIED
Adams, J. D.USRAUNSPECIFIED
Richter, HeikoHeiko.Richter (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:5 June 2018
Journal or Publication Title:Astronomy & Astrophysics
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.1051/0004-6361/201732508
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:0004-6361
Status:Published
Keywords:interstellar medium, THz, OI
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:other
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R - no assignment
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - no assignment
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Optical Sensor Systems > Terahertz and Laser Spectroscopy
Deposited By: Richter, Dr.rer.nat. Heiko
Deposited On:29 Nov 2018 10:10
Last Modified:29 Nov 2018 10:10

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