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Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows

Locher, B. and Piquerez, A. and Habermacher, M. and Ragettli, M. and Röösli, M. and Brink, M. and Cajochen, C. and Vienneau, D. and Foraster, M. and Müller, U. and Wunderli, J.M. (2018) Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows. International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, 15 (149), pp. 1-16. Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI). DOI: 10.3390/ijerph15010149 ISSN 1661-7827

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Abstract

Noise exposure prediction models for health effect studies normally estimate free field exposure levels outside. However, to assess the noise exposure inside dwellings, an estimate of indoor sound levels is necessary. To date, little field data is available about the difference between indoor and outdoor noise levels and factors affecting the damping of outside noise. This is a major cause of uncertainty in indoor noise exposure prediction and may lead to exposure misclassification in health assessments. This study aims to determine sound level differences between the indoors and the outdoors for different window positions and how this sound damping is related to building characteristics. For this purpose, measurements were carried out at home in a sample of 102 Swiss residents exposed to road traffic noise. Sound pressure level recordings were performed outdoors and indoors, in the living room and in the bedroom. Three scenarios—of open, tilted, and closed windows—were recorded for three minutes each. For each situation, data on additional parameters such as the orientation towards the source, floor, and room, as well as sound insulation characteristics were collected. On that basis, linear regression models were established. The median outdoor–indoor sound level differences were of 10 dB(A) for open, 16 dB(A) for tilted, and 28 dB(A) for closed windows. For open and tilted windows, the most relevant parameters affecting the outdoor–indoor differences were the position of the window, the type and volume of the room, and the age of the building. For closed windows, the relevant parameters were the sound level outside, the material of the window frame, the existence of window gaskets, and the number of windows

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/119469/
Document Type:Article
Title:Differences between Outdoor and Indoor Sound Levels for Open, Tilted, and Closed Windows
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Locher, B.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Piquerez, A.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Habermacher, M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ragettli, M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Röösli, M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Brink, M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Cajochen, C.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vienneau, D.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Foraster, M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Müller, U.uwe.mueller (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Wunderli, J.M.UNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:2018
Journal or Publication Title:International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:No
Volume:15
DOI :10.3390/ijerph15010149
Page Range:pp. 1-16
Publisher:Multidisciplinary Digital Publishing Institute (MDPI)
ISSN:1661-7827
Status:Published
Keywords:sound level differences indoors/outdoors; correction factors; open window; tilted window; closed window; linear model
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Transport System
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V VS - Verkehrssystem
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Verkehrsentwicklung und Umwelt II (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Sleep and Human Factors Research
Deposited By: Sender, Alina
Deposited On:27 Mar 2018 13:14
Last Modified:21 Sep 2019 05:05

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