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Venus Surface Composition Constrained by Observation and Experiment

Gilmore, M. and Treimann, Allan and Helbert, Jörn and Smrekar, S.E. (2017) Venus Surface Composition Constrained by Observation and Experiment. Space Science Reviews, 212 (3-4), pp. 1511-1540. Springer. DOI: 10.1007/s11214-017-0370-8 ISSN 0038-6308

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11214-017-0370-8

Abstract

New observations from the Venus Express spacecraft as well as theoretical and experimental investigation of Venus analogue materials have advanced our understanding of the petrology of Venus melts and the mineralogy of rocks on the surface. The VIRTIS instrument aboard Venus Express provided a map of the southern hemisphere of Venus at ∼1 μm allowing, for the first time, the definition of surface units in terms of their 1 μm emissivity and derived mineralogy. Tessera terrain has lower emissivity than the presumably basaltic plains, consistent with a more silica-rich or felsic mineralogy. Thermodynamic modeling and experimental production of melts with Venera and Vega starting compositions predict derivative melts that range from mafic to felsic. Large volumes of felsic melts require water and may link the formation of tesserae to the presence of a Venus ocean. Low emissivity rocks may also be produced by atmosphere-surface weathering reactions unlike those seen presently. High 1 μm emissivity values correlate to stratigraphically recent flows and have been used with theoretical and experimental predictions of basalt weathering to identify regions of recent volcanism. The timescale of this volcanism is currently constrained by the weathering of magnetite (higher emissivity) in fresh basalts to hematite (lower emissivity) in Venus’ oxidizing environment. Recent volcanism is corroborated by transient thermal anomalies identified by the VMC instrument aboard Venus Express. The interpretation of all emissivity data depends critically on understanding the composition of surface materials, kinetics of rock weathering and their measurement under Venus conditions. Extended theoretical studies, continued analysis of earlier spacecraft results, new atmospheric data, and measurements of mineral stability under Venus conditions have improved our understanding atmosphere-surface interactions. The calcite-wollastonite CO2 buffer has been discounted due, among other things, to the rarity of wollastonite and instability of carbonate at the Venus surface. Sulfur in the Venus atmosphere has been shown experimentally to react with Ca in surface minerals to produce anhydrite. The extent of this SO2 buffer is constrained by the Ca content of surface rocks and sulfur content of the atmosphere, both of which are likely variable, perhaps due to active volcanism. Experimental work on a range of semiconductor and ferroelectric minerals is placing constraints on the cause(s) of Venus’ anomalously radar bright highlands.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/116124/
Document Type:Article
Title:Venus Surface Composition Constrained by Observation and Experiment
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Gilmore, M.wesleyan univ., usaUNSPECIFIED
Treimann, Allanlunar and planetary institute, 3600 bay area boulevard, houston, tx 77058, usaUNSPECIFIED
Helbert, Jörnjoern.helbert (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5346-9505
Smrekar, S.E.jet propulsion laboratory, california institute of technology, pasadena, usaUNSPECIFIED
Date:21 April 2017
Journal or Publication Title:Space Science Reviews
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:212
DOI :10.1007/s11214-017-0370-8
Page Range:pp. 1511-1540
Publisher:Springer
ISSN:0038-6308
Status:Published
Keywords:Venus Mineralogy Crust Geochemistry
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):Venus Emissivity Mapper
Location: Berlin-Adlershof
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Planetary Research > Leitungsbereich PF
Deposited By: Helbert, Dr.rer.nat. Jörn
Deposited On:30 Nov 2017 13:59
Last Modified:30 Nov 2017 13:59

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