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EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station

Rabbow, Elke and Rettberg, Petra and Parpart, André and Panitz, Corinna and Schulte, Wolfgang and Molter, Ferdinand and Jaramillo, Esther and Demets, René and Weiß, Peter and Willnecker, Rainer (2017) EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station. Frontiers in Microbiology, 8 (1533). Frontiers Media S.A.. DOI: 10.3389/fmicb.2017.01533 ISSN 1664-302X

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2017.01533

Abstract

On July 23, 2014, the Progress cargo spacecraft 56P was launched from Baikonur to the International Space Station (ISS), carrying EXPOSE-R2, the third ESA (European Space Agency) EXPOSE facility, the second EXPOSE on the outside platform of the Russian Zvezda module, with four international astrobiological experiments into space. More than 600 biological samples of archaea, bacteria (as biofilms and in planktonic form), lichens, fungi, plant seeds, triops eggs, mosses and 150 samples of organic compounds were exposed to the harsh space environment and to parameters similar to those on the Mars surface. Radiation dosimeters distributed over the whole facility complemented the scientific payload. Three extravehicular activities later the chemical samples were returned to Earth on March 2, 2016, with Soyuz 44S, having spent 588 days in space. The biological samples arrived back later, on June 18, 2016, with 45S, after a total duration in space of 531 days. The exposure of the samples to Low Earth Orbit vacuum lasted for 531 days and was divided in two parts: protected against solar irradiation during the first 62 days, followed by exposure to solar radiation during the subsequent 469 days. In parallel to the space mission, a Mission Ground Reference (MGR) experiment with a flight identical Hardware and a complete flight identical set of samples was performed at the premises of DLR (German Aerospace Center) in Cologne by MUSC (Microgravity User Support Center), according to the mission data either downloaded from the ISS (temperature data, facility status, inner pressure status) or provided by RedShift Design and Engineering BVBA, Belgium (calculated ultra violet radiation fluence data). In this paper, the EXPOSE-R2 facility, the experimental samples, mission parameters, environmental parameters, and the overall mission and MGR sequences are described, building the background for the research papers of the individual experiments, their analysis and results.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/113952/
Document Type:Article
Additional Information:Auch erschienen in: Olsson-Francis, K., Billi, D., Teske, A., de Vera, J.-P. P., eds. (2019). Habitability Beyond Earth. Lausanne: Frontiers Media. doi: 10.3389/978-2-88945-765-6
Title:EXPOSE-R2: The Astrobiological ESA Mission on Board of the International Space Station
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Rabbow, Elkeradiation biology department, institute of aerospace medicine, german aerospace center (dlr), cologne; Elke.Rabbow (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9301-2021
Rettberg, Petraradiation biology department, institute of aerospace medicine, german aerospace center (dlr), cologne, germany; petra.rettberg (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4439-2395
Parpart, Andréradiation biology department, institute of aerospace medicine, german aerospace center (dlr), cologne, germanyUNSPECIFIED
Panitz, CorinnaInstitute of Pharmacology and Toxicology, Uniklinik RWTH Aachen, Aachen, Germany; corinna.panitz (at) dlr.dehttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6740-761X
Schulte, WolfgangOHB System AG, Wessling, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Molter, FerdinandOHB System AG, Wessling, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Jaramillo, EstherRUAG Schweiz AG, RUAG Space, Zürich, SwitzerlandUNSPECIFIED
Demets, RenéEuropean Space Research and Technology Centre, European Space Agency, Noordwijk, NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Weiß, PeterMicrogravity User Support Center, German Aerospace Center, Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Willnecker, RainerMicrogravity User Support Center, German Aerospace Center, Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2017
Journal or Publication Title:Frontiers in Microbiology
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:8
DOI :10.3389/fmicb.2017.01533
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Teske, AndreasUniversity of North Carolina at Chapel Hill, United States
Publisher:Frontiers Media S.A.
ISSN:1664-302X
Status:Published
Keywords:astrobiology, ground simulation, survival, UV, vacuum, extra-terrestrial UV radiation, temperature, space missions
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Space Operations and Astronaut Training > User center for space experiments (MUSC)
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:25 Sep 2017 13:53
Last Modified:18 Sep 2019 12:06

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