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Ionospheric tomography by gradient enhanced kriging with STEC measurements and ionosonde characteristics

Minkwitz, David and van den Boogaart, Karl Gerald and Gerzen, Tatjana and Hoque, Mohammed Mainul and Hernandez-Pajares, Manuel (2016) Ionospheric tomography by gradient enhanced kriging with STEC measurements and ionosonde characteristics. Annales Geophysicae (34), pp. 999-1010. Copernicus Publications. DOI: 10.5194/angeo-34-999-2016 ISSN 0992-7689

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The estimation of the ionospheric electron density by kriging is based on the optimization of a parametric measurement covariance model. First, the extension of kriging with slant total electron content (STEC) measurements based on a spatial covariance to kriging with a spatial-temporal covariance model, assimilating STEC data of a sliding window, is presented. Secondly, a novel tomography approach by gradient enhanced kriging (GEK) is developed. Beyond the ingestion of STEC measurements, GEK assimilates ionosonde characteristics providing peak electron density measurements as well as gradient information. Both approaches deploy the 3D electron density model NeQuick as a priori information and estimate the covariance parameter vector within a maximum likelihood estimation for the dedicated tomography time stamp. The methods are validated in the European region for two periods covering quiet and active ionospheric conditions. The kriging with spatial and spatial-temporal covariance model is analysed regarding its capability to reproduce STEC, differential STEC and foF2. Therefore the estimates are compared to the NeQuick model results, the 2D TEC maps of the International GNSS Service and the DLR’s Ionospheric Monitoring and Prediction Center, and in case of foF2 to two independent ionosonde stations. Moreover, simulated STEC and ionosonde measurements are used to investigate the electron density profiles estimated by the GEK in comparison to a kriging with STEC only. The results indicate a crucial improvement in the initial guess by the developed methods and point out the potential compensation for a bias in the peak height hmF2 by means of GEK.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/107674/
Document Type:Article
Title:Ionospheric tomography by gradient enhanced kriging with STEC measurements and ionosonde characteristics
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Minkwitz, Daviddavid.minkwitz (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
van den Boogaart, Karl GeraldTU Freiberg, HZDRUNSPECIFIED
Gerzen, Tatjanatatjana.gerzen (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Hoque, Mohammed MainulMainul.Hoque (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Hernandez-Pajares, ManuelUPC BarcelonaUNSPECIFIED
Date:14 November 2016
Journal or Publication Title:Annales Geophysicae
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
DOI :10.5194/angeo-34-999-2016
Page Range:pp. 999-1010
Publisher:Copernicus Publications
Keywords:ionosphere, data assimilation, kriging, tomography, multi-sensor, gradient enhanced kriging
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Communication and Navigation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R KN - Kommunikation und Navigation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Ionosphäre
Location: Neustrelitz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Communication and Navigation > Navigation
Deposited By: Minkwitz, David
Deposited On:14 Nov 2016 15:51
Last Modified:08 Mar 2018 18:47

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