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Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion

Birukov, A. and Rakova, N. and Lerchl, K. and Engberink, R.H. and Johannes, B. and Wabel, P. and Moissl, U. and Rauh, M. and Luft, F. C. and Titze, J. (2016) Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion. American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 104 (1), pp. 49-57. American Society for Nutrition. DOI: 10.3945/ajcn.116.132951 ISSN 0002-9165

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Abstract

Background: The intake of sodium, chloride, and potassium is considered important to healthy nutrition and cardiovascular disease risk. Estimating the intake of these electrolytes is difficult and usually predicated on urine collections, commonly for 24 h, which are considered the gold standard. We reported on data earlier for sodium but not for potassium or chloride. Objective: We were able to test the value of 24-h urine collections in a unique, ultra-long–term balance study conducted during a simulated trip to Mars. Design: Four healthy men were observed while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, while their potassium intakewasmaintained at 4 g/d for 105 d. Six healthy men were studied while ingesting 12 g salt/d, 9 g salt/d, and 6 g salt/d, with a re-exposure of 12 g/d, while their potassium intake was maintained at 4 g/d for 205 d. Food intake and other constituents were recorded every day for each subject. All urine output was collected daily. Results: Long-term urine recovery rates for all 3 electrolytes were very high. Rather than the expected constant daily excretion related to daily intake, we observed remarkable daily variation in excretion, with a 7-d infradian rhythm at a relatively constant intake. We monitored 24-h aldosterone excretion in these studies and found that aldosterone appeared to be the regulator for all 3 electrolytes. We report Bland–Altman analyses on the value of urine collections to estimate intake. Conclusions: A single 24-h urine collection cannot predict sodium, potassium, or chloride intake; thus, multiple collections are necessary. This information is important when assessing electrolyte intake in individuals.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/107356/
Document Type:Article
Title:Ultra-long–term human salt balance studies reveal interrelations between sodium, potassium, and chloride intake and excretion
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Birukov, A.Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, Nikolaus Fiebiger Center for Molecular MedicineUNSPECIFIED
Rakova, N.Experimental and Clinical Research Center, an institutional cooperation between the Charité Medical Faculty and the Max Delbrück Center, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Lerchl, K.Interdisciplinary Center for Clinical Research, Nikolaus Fiebiger Center for Molecular MedicineUNSPECIFIED
Engberink, R.H.Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Nephrology, University of Amsterdam, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, NetherlandsUNSPECIFIED
Johannes, B.Division Space Physiology, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center, bernd.johannes (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Wabel, P.Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Moissl, U.Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Rauh, M.Universität ErlangenUNSPECIFIED
Luft, F. C.Franz-Volhard Clinical Research Center, Medical University Charité, Campus Buch, Berlin, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Titze, J.Department of Nephrology and Hypertension, and Nikolaus Fiebiger Centre for Molecular Medicine, University Clinic and Friedrich Alexander University of Erlangen-Nuremberg, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:July 2016
Journal or Publication Title:American Journal of Clinical Nutrition
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:104
DOI :10.3945/ajcn.116.132951
Page Range:pp. 49-57
Editors:
EditorsEmail
Bier, Dennis MUNSPECIFIED
Publisher:American Society for Nutrition
ISSN:0002-9165
Status:Published
Keywords:sodium, salt, chloride, potassium, aldosterone, urine, diet, electrolyte intake
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Research under Space Conditions
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben Integrative Studien (old)
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Space Physiology
Deposited By: Becker, Christine
Deposited On:11 Jan 2017 10:01
Last Modified:06 Sep 2019 15:16

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