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Balancing of Intermittent Renewable Power Generation by Demand Response and Thermal Energy Storage

Gils, Hans Christian (2015) Balancing of Intermittent Renewable Power Generation by Demand Response and Thermal Energy Storage. Dissertation, Universität Stuttgart.

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.18419/opus-6888


Balancing of intermittent renewable power generation from wind and solar energy is one of the central challenges within the energy system transformation towards a more sustainable supply. This work addresses the potential role of flexible electric loads and power-controlled operation of combined heat and power (CHP) plants in meeting increasing balancing needs in Germany. It conducts an enhancement of the cross-sectoral REMix model, which is designed for the preparation and assessment of energy supply scenarios based on a system representation in high spatial and temporal resolution. The analysis is composed of three fundamental parts. The first part is dedicated to the quantification of theoretical potentials for demand response (DR), district heating (DH) and industrial CHP in Europe. Special attention is given to the geographic distribution of potentials, as well as the derivation of hourly heat and electricity demand profiles. In the second part, the linear optimization model within REMix is extended by DR and the heating sector, enabling economic assessments of the balancing function of flexible electric loads and power-controlled heat supply. In the third part, REMix is applied to assess the future energy supply in Germany, making use of the model enhancements and identified potentials. In order to account for different renewable energy (RE) and grid capacity development paths, as well as transport and heat sector structures, nine scenarios are considered. For each scenario, least-cost dimensioning and operation of DR capacities, as well as heat supply systems are evaluated. According to the REMix results, the application of DR is mostly limited to short time peak shaving of the residual load. This implies that its focus is on the provision of power, not energy. As a consequence of different cost structures, the exploitation of available DR potentials is attributed almost exclusively to industrial and commercial sector loads, whereas those in the residential sector are hardly accessed. The model results indicate that the temporal availability of DR potentials, as well as their characteristic intervention and shift times are particularly suited for a combination with PV power generation. In the simulations, power-controlled heat supply has proven to be an effective measure to increase RE integration. It is achieved by a modified operation pattern of CHP and -- to a lower extent -- heat pumps (HP) enabled by thermal energy storage (TES) on the one hand, and an utilization of surplus power for heating purposes on the other. Due to the greater potential and thus longer storage times of TES, as well as the comparatively low investment costs of electric boilers, an enhanced coupling between power and heat sector is found to be especially favorable in combination with wind power utilization. Load shifting across all sectors provides substantial amounts of positive balancing power, which can substitute other firm generation capacity. The highest load reduction is achieved by controlled electric vehicle charging, lower contributions come from adjusted HP operation and other DR. As a consequence of higher RE integration, load shifting and power-controlled heat supply can contribute substantially to CO2 emission reductions in Germany. However, this is only the case if the additional balancing potentials are not applied as well for an economically motivated shift in power generation from low-emitting to high-emitting fuels. Furthermore, load flexibility and enhanced power-heat-coupling can enable energy supply cost reductions, arising from the substitution of back-up power plant capacity on the one hand, and a more cost-efficient power and heat supply on the other. The model application reveals that electric load shifting and power-controlled CHP operation are not competing but complementary measures in the realization of higher RE integration and lower back-up capacity demand. Negative interferences between both balancing options are found to be very small. On the contrary, they even promote each other, for example in the reduction of RE curtailments. Based on the REMix results it can be concluded that both DR and power-controlled heat supply enabled by TES are important elements in a future German energy system mainly relying on renewable sources.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/104130/
Document Type:Thesis (Dissertation)
Title:Balancing of Intermittent Renewable Power Generation by Demand Response and Thermal Energy Storage
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Gils, Hans Christianhans-christian.gils (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Date:December 2015
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
Keywords:Energiesystemmodellierung, Erneuerbare Energien, Lastmanagement, Thermische Energiespeicher
Institution:Universität Stuttgart
HGF - Research field:Energy
HGF - Program:Technology, Innovation and Society
HGF - Program Themes:Renewable Energy and Material Resources for Sustainable Futures - Integrating at Different Scales
DLR - Research area:Energy
DLR - Program:E MS - Systems analysis
DLR - Research theme (Project):E - Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment (old)
Location: Stuttgart
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Engineering Thermodynamics > Systems Analysis and Technology Assessment
Deposited By: Gils, Hans Christian
Deposited On:06 Jun 2016 12:56
Last Modified:06 Jun 2016 12:56

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