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The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements

Matthiä, Daniel and Ehresmann, Bent and Lohf, Henning and Köhler, Jan and Zeitlin, Cary and Appel, Jan and Sato, Tatsuhiko and Slaba, Tony and Martin, Cesar and Berger, Thomas and Boehm, Eckart and Boettcher, Stephan and Brinza, David E. and Burmeister, Soenke and Guo, Jingnan and Hassler, Donald M. and Posner, Arik and Rafkin, Scot C. R. and Reitz, Günther and Wilson, John W. and Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F. (2016) The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements. Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate, 6, A13. EDP Sciences. DOI: 10.1051/swsc/2016008 ISSN 2115-7251

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Official URL: http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/swsc/2016008

Abstract

Context: The Radiation Assessment Detector (RAD) on the Mars Science Laboratory (MSL) has been measuring the radiation environment on the surface of Mars since August 6th 2012. MSL-RAD is the first instrument to provide detailed information about charged and neutral particle spectra and dose rates on the Martian surface, and one of the primary objectives of the RAD investigation is to help improve and validate current radiation transport models. Aims: Applying different numerical transport models with boundary conditions derived from the MSL-RAD environment the goal of this work was to both provide predictions for the particle spectra and the radiation exposure on the Martian surface complementing the RAD sensitive range and, at the same time, validate the results with the experimental data, where applicable. Such validated models can be used to predict dose rates for future manned missions as well as for performing shield optimization studies. Methods: Several particle transport models (GEANT4, PHITS, HZETRN/OLTARIS) were used to predict the particle flux and the corresponding radiation environment caused by galactic cosmic radiation on Mars. From the calculated particle spectra the dose rates on the surface are estimated. Results: Calculations of particle spectra and dose rates induced by galactic cosmic radiation on the Martian surface are presented. Although good agreement is found in many cases for the different transport codes, GEANT4, PHITS, and HZETRN/OLTARIS, some models still show large, sometimes order of magnitude discrepancies in certain particle spectra. We have found that RAD data is helping to make better choices of input parameters and physical models. Elements of these validated models can be applied to more detailed studies on how the radiation environment is influenced by solar modulation, Martian atmosphere and soil, and changes due to the Martian seasonal pressure cycle. By extending the range of the calculated particle spectra with respect to the experimental data additional information about the radiation environment is gained, and the contribution of different particle species to the dose is estimated.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/103350/
Document Type:Article
Title:The Martian surface radiation environment – a comparison of models and MSL/RAD measurements
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthors ORCID iD
Matthiä, DanielGerman Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Höhe, 51147 Cologne, Germany; Daniel.Matthiae (at) dlr.deUNSPECIFIED
Ehresmann, BentSouthwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, Boulder, CO 80302, USAUNSPECIFIED
Lohf, HenningInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Köhler, JanInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Zeitlin, CarySouthwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, Durham, NH 03824, USAUNSPECIFIED
Appel, JanInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Sato, TatsuhikoJapan Atomic Energy Agency, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1195, JapanUNSPECIFIED
Slaba, TonyNASA Langley Research Center, 2 West Reid St., MS 188E, Hampton, VA 23681, USAUNSPECIFIED
Martin, CesarInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Berger, ThomasGerman Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Höhe, 51147 Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Boehm, EckartInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Boettcher, StephanInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Brinza, David E.Jet Propulsion Laboratory, California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, CA 91109, USAUNSPECIFIED
Burmeister, SoenkeInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Guo, JingnanInstitute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Hassler, Donald M.Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, Boulder, CO 80302, USAUNSPECIFIED
Posner, ArikNASA Headquarters, Washington, DC 20546, USAUNSPECIFIED
Rafkin, Scot C. R.Southwest Research Institute, Space Science and Engineering Division, Boulder, CO 80302, USAUNSPECIFIED
Reitz, GüntherGerman Aerospace Center, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, Linder Höhe, 51147 Cologne, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Wilson, John W.Old Dominion University, Norfolk, VA 23529, USAUNSPECIFIED
Wimmer-Schweingruber, Robert F.Institute of Experimental and Applied Physics, Christian-Albrechts-University, 24118 Kiel, GermanyUNSPECIFIED
Date:2016
Journal or Publication Title:Journal of Space Weather and Space Climate
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:6
DOI :10.1051/swsc/2016008
Page Range:A13
Publisher:EDP Sciences
ISSN:2115-7251
Status:Published
Keywords:Mars, Galactic cosmic Radiation, Radiation Environment, Human exploration, Numerical models, Exposure
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Space Science and Exploration
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Vorhaben MSL-Radiation, R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie
Location: Köln-Porz
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology
Deposited By: Kopp, Kerstin
Deposited On:08 Mar 2016 11:40
Last Modified:08 Mar 2016 11:40

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