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Leaders´smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect

Tsai, Jeanne L. and Ang, Jen Ying Zhen and Blevins, Elizabeth and Goernandt, Julia and Fung, Helene H. and Jiang, Da and Elliot, Julian and Kölzer, Anna and Uchida, Yukiko and Lee, Yi-Chen and Lin, Yicheng and Zhang, Xiulan and Govindama, Yolande and Haddouk, Lise (2016) Leaders´smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect. Emotion. American Psychological Association. doi: doi.org/10.1037/emo0000133. ISSN 1528-3542.

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Cultures differ in the emotions they teach their members to value (“ideal affect”). We conducted 3 studies to examine whether leaders’ smiles reflect these cultural differences in ideal affect. In Study 1, we compared the smiles of top-ranked American and Chinese government leaders, chief executive officers, and university presidents in their official photos. Consistent with findings that Americans value excitement and other high-arousal positive states more than Chinese, American top-ranked leaders (N � 98) showed more excited smiles than Chinese top-ranked leaders (N � 91) across occupations. In Study 2, we compared the smiles of winning versus losing political candidates and higher versus lower ranking chief executive officers and university presidents in the United States and Taiwan/China. American leaders (N � 223) showed more excited smiles than Taiwanese/Chinese leaders (N � 266), regardless of election outcome or ranking. In Study 3, we administered self-report measures of ideal affect in college student samples from 10 different nations (N � 1,267) and then 8 years later, coded the smiles that legislators from those nations showed in their official photos (N � 3,372). The more nations valued excitement and other high arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed excited smiles; similarly, the more nations valued calm and other low-arousal positive states, the more their leaders showed calm smiles. These results held after controlling for national differences in democratization, human development, and gross domestic product per capita. Together, these findings suggest that leaders’ smiles reflect the affective states valued by their cultures.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/102847/
Document Type:Article
Title:Leaders´smiles reflect cultural differences in ideal affect
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iD
Tsai, Jeanne L.Stanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Ang, Jen Ying ZhenStanford UniversitiyUNSPECIFIED
Blevins, ElizabethStanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Goernandt, JuliaStanford UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Fung, Helene H.Chinese University of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
Jiang, DaCinese University of Hong KongUNSPECIFIED
Elliot, JulianDurham UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Uchida, YukikoKyoto UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Lee, Yi-ChenNational Taiwan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Lin, YichengNational Taiwan UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Zhang, XiulanBeijing Normal UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Govindama, YolandeParis Descartes UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Haddouk, LiseParsi Descartes UniversityUNSPECIFIED
Journal or Publication Title:Emotion
Refereed publication:Yes
Open Access:No
Gold Open Access:No
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iD
Publisher:American Psychological Association
Keywords:culture, emotion, ideal affect, smiles, leaders
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Transport
HGF - Program Themes:Terrestrial Vehicles (old)
DLR - Research area:Transport
DLR - Program:V BF - Bodengebundene Fahrzeuge
DLR - Research theme (Project):V - Next Generation Train III (old)
Location: Hamburg
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Aviation and Space Psychology
Deposited By: Witt, Andrea
Deposited On:16 Feb 2016 14:25
Last Modified:30 Aug 2017 15:15

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