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Requirements for Safe Robots: Measurements, Analysis and New Insights

Haddadin, Sami and Albu-Schäffer, Alin and Hirzinger, Gerd (2009) Requirements for Safe Robots: Measurements, Analysis and New Insights. The International Journal of Robotics Research. DOI: doi:10.1177/0278364909343970. ISSN 0278-3649.

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Physical human–robot interaction and cooperation has become a topic of increasing importance and of major focus in robotics research. An essential requirement of a robot designed for high mobility and direct interaction with human users or uncertain environments is that it must in no case pose a threat to the human. Until recently, quite a few attempts were made to investigate real-world threats via collision tests and use the outcome to considerably improve safety during physical human–robot interaction. In this paper, we give an overview of our systematic evaluation of safety in human–robot interaction, covering various aspects of the most significant injury mechanisms. In order to quantify the potential injury risk emanating from such a manipulator, impact tests with the DLR-Lightweight Robot III were carried out using standard automobile crash test facilities at the German Automobile Club (ADAC). Based on these tests, several industrial robots of different weight have been evaluated and the influence of the robot mass and velocity have been investigated. The evaluated non-constrained impacts would only partially capture the nature of human–robot safety. A possibly constrained environment and its effect on the resulting human injuries are discussed and evaluated from different perspectives. As well as such impact tests and simulations, we have analyzed the problem of the quasi-static constrained impact, which could pose a serious threat to the human even for low-inertia robots under certain circumstances. Finally, possible injuries relevant in robotics are summarized and systematically classified.

Document Type:Article
Title:Requirements for Safe Robots: Measurements, Analysis and New Insights
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Albu-Schäffer, AlinUNSPECIFIED
Hirzinger, GerdUNSPECIFIED
Date:20 August 2009
Journal or Publication Title:The International Journal of Robotics Research
Refereed publication:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Keywords:Physical Human-Robot Interaction, Simulation, Flexible Arms, Mechanics, Design and Control, Force Control
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W SY - Technik für Raumfahrtsysteme
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W SY - Technik für Raumfahrtsysteme
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Weiterentwicklung Robotik - Mechatronik und Dynamik (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Robotics and Mechatronics > Robotic Systems
Deposited By: Gabriele Beinhofer
Deposited On:13 Jan 2010 13:12
Last Modified:12 Dec 2013 20:51

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