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Parameterizations of US wildfire and prescribed fire emission ratios and emission factors based on FIREX-AQ aircraft measurements

Gkatzelis, Georgios I. and Coggon, Matthew M. and Stockwell, Chelsea E. and Hornbrook, Rebecca S. and Allen, Hannah and Apel, Eric C. and Ball, Katherine and Bela, Megan M. and Blake, Donald R. and Bourgeois, Ilann and Brown, Steven S. and Campuzano-Jost, Pedro and St. Clair, Jason M. and Crawford, James H. and Crounse, John D. and Day, Douglas A. and DiGangi, Joshua P. and Diskin, Glenn S. and Fried, Alan and Gilman, Jessica and Guo, Hongyu and Hair, Johnathan W. and Halliday, Hannah A. and Hanisco, Thomas F. and Hannun, Reem and Hills, Alan and Huey, Gregory and Jimenez, Jose L. and Katich, Joseph M. and Lamplugh, Aaron and Lee, Young Ro and Liao, Jin and Lindaas, Jakob and McKeen, Stuart A. and Mikoviny, Tomas and Nault, Benjamin A. and Neuman, James A. and Nowak, John B. and Pagonis, Demetrios and Peischl, Jeff and Perring, Anne E. and Piel, Felix and Rickly, Pamela S. and Robinson, Michael A. and Rollins, Andrew W. and Ryerson, Thomas B. and Schueneman, Melinda K. and Schwantes, Rebecca H. and Schwarz, Joshua P. and Sekimoto, Kanako and Selimovic, Vanessa and Shingler, Taylor and Tanner, David J. and Tomsche, Laura and Vasquez, Krystal and Veres, Patrick R. and Washenfelder, Rebecca and Weibring, Petter and Wennberg, Paul O. and Wisthaler, Armin and Wolfe, Glenn and Womack, Caroline and Xu, Lu and Yokelson, Robert and Warneke, Carsten (2023) Parameterizations of US wildfire and prescribed fire emission ratios and emission factors based on FIREX-AQ aircraft measurements. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD). Copernicus Publications. doi: 10.5194/egusphere-2023-1439. ISSN 1680-7367.

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Official URL: https://dx.doi.org/10.5194/egusphere-2023-1439

Abstract

Extensive airborne measurements of non-methane organic gases (NMOGs), methane, nitrogen oxides, reduced nitrogen-species, and aerosol emissions from US wild and prescribed fires were conducted during the 2019 NOAA/NASA Fire Influence on Regional to Global Environments and Air Quality campaign (FIREX-AQ). Here, we report the atmospheric enhancement ratios (ERs) and inferred emission factors (EFs) for compounds measured onboard the NASA DC-8 research aircraft for nine wildfires and one prescribed fire, which encompass a range of vegetation types. We use photochemical proxies to identify young smoke and reduce the effects of chemical degradation on our emissions calculations. ERs and EFs calculated from FIREX-AQ observations agree within a factor of 2 with values reported from previous laboratory and field studies for more than 80 % of the carbon- and nitrogen-containing species. Wildfire emissions are parameterized based on correlations of the sum of NMOGs with reactive nitrogen oxides (NOy) to modified combustion efficiency (MCE) as well as other chemical signatures indicative of flaming/smoldering combustion, including carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen dioxide (NO2), and black carbon aerosol. The sum of primary NMOG EFs correlates to MCE with an R2 of 0.68 and a slope of -296 ± 51 g kg-1, consistent with previous studies. The sum of the NMOG mixing ratios correlates well with CO with an R2 of 0.98 and a slope of 137 ± 4 ppbv of NMOGs per ppmv of CO, demonstrating that primary NMOG emissions can be estimated from CO. Individual nitrogen-containing species correlate better with NO2, NOy, and black carbon than with CO. More than half of the NOy in fresh plumes is NO2 with an R2 of 0.95 and a ratio of NO2 to NOy of 0.55 ± 0.05 ppbv ppbv-1, highlighting that fast photochemistry had already occurred in the sampled fire plumes. The ratio of NOy to the sum of NMOGs follows trends observed in laboratory experiments and increases exponentially with MCE, due to increased emission of key nitrogen species and reduced emission of NMOGs at higher MCE during flaming combustion. These parameterizations will provide more accurate boundary conditions for modeling and satellite studies of fire plume chemistry and evolution to predict the downwind formation of secondary pollutants, including ozone and secondary organic aerosol.

Item URL in elib:https://elib.dlr.de/199267/
Document Type:Article
Title:Parameterizations of US wildfire and prescribed fire emission ratios and emission factors based on FIREX-AQ aircraft measurements
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of AuthorsAuthor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Gkatzelis, Georgios I.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-4608-3695UNSPECIFIED
Coggon, Matthew M.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Stockwell, Chelsea E.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3462-2126UNSPECIFIED
Hornbrook, Rebecca S.NCAR, Boulder, CO, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Allen, HannahCalifornia Institute of Technology, PasadenaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Apel, Eric C.NCAR, Boulder, CO, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ball, KatherineCalifornia Institute of Technology, PasadenaUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bela, Megan M.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Blake, Donald R.University of California, IrvineUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Bourgeois, IlannUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-2875-1258UNSPECIFIED
Brown, Steven S.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Campuzano-Jost, PedroUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3930-010XUNSPECIFIED
St. Clair, Jason M.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelthttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9367-5749UNSPECIFIED
Crawford, James H.NASA Langley Research Center, HamptonUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Crounse, John D.California Institute of Technology, Pasadenahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5443-729XUNSPECIFIED
Day, Douglas A.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-3213-4233UNSPECIFIED
DiGangi, Joshua P.NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6764-8624UNSPECIFIED
Diskin, Glenn S.NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3617-0269UNSPECIFIED
Fried, AlanUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5230-3527UNSPECIFIED
Gilman, JessicaNOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Guo, HongyuUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0487-3610UNSPECIFIED
Hair, Johnathan W.NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Halliday, Hannah A.NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9499-9836UNSPECIFIED
Hanisco, Thomas F.NASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelthttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9434-8507UNSPECIFIED
Hannun, ReemNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelthttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-5195-5307UNSPECIFIED
Hills, AlanNCAR, Boulder, CO, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Huey, GregoryGeorgia Institute of Technology, Altalnta, GA, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0518-7690UNSPECIFIED
Jimenez, Jose L.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Katich, Joseph M.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lamplugh, AaronUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lee, Young RoGeorgia Institute of Technology, Altalnta, GA, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Liao, JinNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, GreenbeltUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Lindaas, JakobColorado State University, Fort Collins, CO, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-1872-3162UNSPECIFIED
McKeen, Stuart A.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Mikoviny, TomasUniversity of Oslo, NorwayUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Nault, Benjamin A.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9464-4787UNSPECIFIED
Neuman, James A.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-3986-1727UNSPECIFIED
Nowak, John B.NASA Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-5697-9807UNSPECIFIED
Pagonis, DemetriosUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0441-2614UNSPECIFIED
Peischl, JeffUniv. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9320-7101UNSPECIFIED
Perring, Anne E.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2231-7503UNSPECIFIED
Piel, FelixUniversity of Oslo, NorwayUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Rickly, Pamela S.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8459-869XUNSPECIFIED
Robinson, Michael A.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-0977-9148UNSPECIFIED
Rollins, Andrew W.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Ryerson, Thomas B.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulderhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-2800-7581UNSPECIFIED
Schueneman, Melinda K.Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, Colorado, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4359-1472UNSPECIFIED
Schwantes, Rebecca H.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulderhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7095-3718UNSPECIFIED
Schwarz, Joshua P.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulderhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-9123-2223UNSPECIFIED
Sekimoto, KanakoYokohama City University, Yokohama, Kanagawa, JapanUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Selimovic, VanessaUniversity of Montana, Missoula, MT, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Shingler, TaylorNasa Langley Research Center, Hampton, VA, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tanner, David J.Georgia Institute of Technology, Altalnta, GA, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Tomsche, LauraDLR, IPAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Vasquez, KrystalCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadenahttps://orcid.org/0000-0003-4540-4212UNSPECIFIED
Veres, Patrick R.NOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulderhttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-7539-353XUNSPECIFIED
Washenfelder, RebeccaNOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Weibring, PetterCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadenahttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-9567-3803UNSPECIFIED
Wennberg, Paul O.California Institute of Technology, Pasadena, California, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-6126-3854UNSPECIFIED
Wisthaler, ArminUniversity of Oslo, NorwayUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Wolfe, GlennNASA Goddard Space Flight Center, Greenbelthttps://orcid.org/0000-0001-6586-4043UNSPECIFIED
Womack, CarolineNOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, Boulderhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-7101-9054UNSPECIFIED
Xu, LuCalifornia Institute of Technology, Pasadenahttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-0021-9876UNSPECIFIED
Yokelson, RobertUniversity of Montana, Missoula, MT, USAhttps://orcid.org/0000-0002-8415-6808UNSPECIFIED
Warneke, CarstenNOAA Chemical Sciences Laboratory, BoulderUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Date:5 July 2023
Journal or Publication Title:Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics Discussions (ACPD)
Refereed publication:No
Open Access:Yes
Gold Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:No
In ISI Web of Science:No
DOI:10.5194/egusphere-2023-1439
Editors:
EditorsEmailEditor's ORCID iDORCID Put Code
Gkatzelis, Georgios I.University of Colorado Boulder, Boulder, CO, USAUNSPECIFIEDUNSPECIFIED
Publisher:Copernicus Publications
ISSN:1680-7367
Status:Accepted
Keywords:emission ratios, emission factors, airborne measurements, wildfire, prescribed fire
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Space
HGF - Program Themes:Earth Observation
DLR - Research area:Raumfahrt
DLR - Program:R EO - Earth Observation
DLR - Research theme (Project):R - Atmospheric and climate research
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Cloud Physics
Deposited By: Tomsche, Laura
Deposited On:15 Nov 2023 13:20
Last Modified:29 Jan 2024 12:14

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