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Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan

Alam, Khan und Blaschke, Thomas und Madl, Pierre und Mukhtar, Azam und Hussain, Majid und Trautmann, Thomas und Rahman, Said (2011) Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan. Journal of Environmental Monitoring, 13, Seiten 1944-1952. RSC Publishing. DOI: 10.1039/c1em10086f.

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Offizielle URL: http://pubs.rsc.org/en/journals/journalissues/em

Kurzfassung

During March and April 2010 aerosol inventories from four large cities in Pakistan were assessed in terms of particle size distributions (N), mass (M) concentrations, and particulate matter (PM) concentrations. These M and PM concentrations were obtained for Karachi, Lahore, Rawalpindi, and Peshawar from N concentrations using a native algorithm based on the Grimm model 1.109 dust monitor. The results have confirmed high N, M and PM concentrations in all four cities. They also revealed major contributions to the aerosol concentrations from the re-suspension of road dust, from sea salt aerosols, and from vehicular and industrial emissions. During the study period the 24 hour average PM10 concentrations for three sites in Karachi were found to be 461 mg/m^3, 270 mg/m^3, and 88 mg/m^3, while the average values for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar were 198 mg/m^3, 448 mg/m^3, and 540 mg/m^3, respectively. The corresponding 24 hour average PM2.5 concentrations were 185 mg/m^3, 151 mg/m^3, and 60 mg/m^3 for the three sites in Karachi, and 91 mg/m^3, 140 mg/m^3, and 160 mg/m^3 for Lahore, Rawalpindi and Peshawar, respectively. The low PM2.5/PM10 ratios revealed a high proportion of coarser particles, which are likely to have originated from (a) traffic, (b) other combustion sources, and (c) the re-suspension of road dust. Our calculated 24 hour averaged PM10 and PM2.5 concentrations at all sampling points were between 2 and 10 times higher than the maximum PM concentrations recommended by the WHO guidelines. The aerosol samples collected were analyzed for crustal elements (Al, Fe, Si, Mg, Ca) and trace elements (B, Ba, Cr, Cu, K, Na, Mn, Ni, P, Pb, S, Sr, Cd, Ti, Zn and Zr). The averaged concentrations for crustal elements ranged from 1.02 +/- 0.76 mg m^3 for Si at the Sea View location in Karachi to 74.96 +/- 7.39 mg/m^3 for Ca in Rawalpindi, and averaged concentrations for trace elements varied from 7.0 +/- 0.75 ng /m^3 for B from the SUPARCO location in Karachi to 17.84 +/- 0.30 mg/m^3 for Na at the M. A. Jinnah Road location, also in Karachi.

Dokumentart:Zeitschriftenbeitrag
Titel:Aerosol size distribution and mass concentration measurements in various cities of Pakistan
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Alam, KhanDepartment of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg, 5020, Austria
Blaschke, ThomasDepartment of Geography and Geology, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg, 5020, Austria
Madl, PierreDepartment of Materials Research and Physics, Division of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg, 5020, Austria
Mukhtar, AzamInstitute of Chemical Technologies and Analytics, Vienna University of Technology, A-1060 Vienna, Austria
Hussain, MajidDepartment of Materials Research and Physics, Division of Physics and Biophysics, University of Salzburg, Hellbrunnerstrasse 34, Salzburg, 5020, Austria
Trautmann, Thomasthomas.trautmann@dlr.de
Rahman, SaidPakistan Space and Upper Atmosphere Research Commission (SUPARCO), P.O. Box 8402, Off University Road, Karachi, 75270, Pakistan
Datum:Juni 2011
Erschienen in:Journal of Environmental Monitoring
Referierte Publikation:Ja
In Open Access:Nein
In SCOPUS:Ja
In ISI Web of Science:Nein
Band:13
DOI :10.1039/c1em10086f
Seitenbereich:Seiten 1944-1952
Verlag:RSC Publishing
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:Aerosol size distribution, aerosol mass concentration, particulate matter, PM2.5, PM10, megacities, crustal elements, trace elements, inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrometry
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Verkehr und Weltraum (alt)
HGF - Programm:Weltraum (alt)
HGF - Programmthema:W EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Weltraum
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:W EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):W - Vorhaben Entwicklung von Atmosphärenprozessoren (alt)
Standort: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Methodik der Fernerkundung > Atmosphärenprozessoren
Hinterlegt von: Prof.Dr. Thomas Trautmann
Hinterlegt am:06 Feb 2012 07:45
Letzte Änderung:19 Dez 2013 12:29

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