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Penetrators for in situ surbsurface investigations of Europa

Gowen, R.A. and Smith, A. and Fortes, A.D. and Barber, S. and Brown, P. and Church, P. and Collinson, G. and Coates, A.J. and Collins, G. and Crawford, I.A. and Dehant, V. and Chela-Flores, J. and Griffiths, A.D. and Grindrod, P.M. and Gurvits, L.I. and Hagermann, A. and Hussmann, H. and Jaumann, R. and Jones, A.P. and Joy, K.H. and Karatekin, O. and Miljkovic, K. and Palomba, E. and Pike, W.T. and Prieto-Ballesteros, O. and Raulin, F. and Sephton, M.A. and Sheridan, S. and Sims, M. and Storrie-Lombardi, M.C. and Ambrosi, R. and Fielding, J. and Fraser, G. and Gao, Y. and Jones, G.H. and Kargl, G. and Karl, W.J. and Macagnano, A. and Murkherjee, A. and Muller, J.P. and Phipps, A. and Pullan, D. and Richter, L. and Sohl, F. and Snape, J. and Sykes, J. and Wells, N. (2011) Penetrators for in situ surbsurface investigations of Europa. Advances in Space Research, 48 (4), pp. 725-742. Elsevier Inc.. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.026. ISSN 0273-1177.

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Abstract

We present the scientific case for inclusion of penetrators into the Europan surface, and the candidate instruments which could significantly enhance the scientific return of the joint ESA/NASA Europa-Jupiter System Mission (EJSM). Moreover, a surface element would provide an exciting and inspirational mission highlight which would encourage public and political support for the mission. Whilst many of the EJSM science goals can be achieved from the proposed orbital platform, only surface elements can provide key exploration capabilities including direct chemical sampling and associated astrobiological material detection, and sensitive habitability determination. A targeted landing site of upwelled material could provide access to potential biological material originating from deep beneath the ice. Penetrators can also enable more capable geophysical investigations of Europa (and Ganymede) interior body structures, mineralogy, mechanical, magnetic, electrical and thermal properties. They would provide ground truth, not just for the orbital observations of Europa, but could also improve confidence of interpretation of observations of the other Jovian moons. Additionally, penetrators on both Europa and Ganymede, would allow valuable comparison of these worlds, and gather significant information relevant to future landed missions. The advocated low mass penetrators also offer a comparatively low cost method of achieving these important science goals. A payload of two penetrators is proposed to provide redundancy, and improve scientific return, including enhanced networked seismometer performance and diversity of sampled regions. We also describe the associated candidate instruments, penetrator system architecture, and technical challenges for such penetrators, and include their current status and future development plans.

Document Type:Article
Title:Penetrators for in situ surbsurface investigations of Europa
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Gowen, R.A.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Smith, A.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Fortes, A.D.Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Barber, S.Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
Brown, P.Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Church, P.Blackett Laboratory, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Collinson, G.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK; Heliophysics Science Division, Code 670, NASA Goddard Spaceflight Center, Greenbelt, MD, 20771, USA
Coates, A.J.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Collins, G.Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Crawford, I.A.Department of Earth and Planetary Sciences, Birkbeck College, University of London, Malet Street, London, WC1E 7HX, UK
Dehant, V.Royal Observatory Belgium (ROB), Av Circulaire 3 – Ringlaan 3, BE 1180 Brussels, Belgium
Chela-Flores, J.Abdus Salam International Centre for Theoretical Physics (ICTP), Strada Costiera 11, 34151 Trieste, Italy
Griffiths, A.D.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Grindrod, P.M.Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Gurvits, L.I.Joint Institute for VLBI in Europe (JIVE), Oude Hoogeveensedijk 4, 7991 PD Dwingeloo, The Netherlands
Hagermann, A.Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
Hussmann, H.hauke.hussmann@dlr.de
Jaumann, R.ralf.jaumann@dlr.de
Jones, A.P.Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Joy, K.H.Center for Lunar Science and Exploration, Lunar and Planetary Institute, Universities Space Research Association, 3600 Bay Area Boulevard, Houston, TX 77058, USA; NASA Lunar Science Institute, USA
Karatekin, O.Royal Observatory Belgium (ROB), Av Circulaire 3 – Ringlaan 3, BE 1180 Brussels, Belgium
Miljkovic, K.Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Palomba, E.Istituto di Fisica dello Spazio Interplanetario-INAF, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
Pike, W.T.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Prieto-Ballesteros, O.Centro de Astrobiologı´a (INTA-CSIC), E-28850 Torrejo´ n de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
Raulin, F.LISA, Universite´s Paris 12 & Paris 7, 61 Avenue du Ge´ne´ral de Gaulle, F94010, Cre´ teil Cedex, France
Sephton, M.A.Department of Earth Science and Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Sheridan, S.Planetary and Space Sciences Research Institute, Open University, Walton Hall, Milton Keynes MK7 6AA, UK
Sims, M.Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Storrie-Lombardi, M.C.Kinohi Institute Inc., 530 South Lake Avenue, #117 Pasadena, CA 91101, USA
Ambrosi, R.Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Fielding, J.Astrium Ltd., Gunnels Wood Road, Stevenage, SG1 2AS, UK
Fraser, G.Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Gao, Y.Surrey Space Centre, The University of Surrey, Guildford, Surrey GU2 7XH, UK
Jones, G.H.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Kargl, G.IWF, Space Research Institute, Schmiedlstraße 6, 8042 Graz, Austria
Karl, W.J.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Macagnano, A.Institute of Microelectronics and Microsystem – CNR, Via del Fosso del Cavaliere 100, 00133 Roma, Italy
Murkherjee, A.Department of Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Imperial College, London SW7 2AZ, UK
Muller, J.P.Mullard Space Science Laboratory, University College London, Holmbury St. Mary, Dorking, Surrey RH5 6NT, UK
Phipps, A.SSTL, Tycho House, 20 Stephenson Road, Surrey Research Park, Guildford, GU2 7YE, UK
Pullan, D.Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Richter, L.lutz.richter@dlr.de
Sohl, F.frank.sohl@dlr.de
Snape, J.Department of Earth Sciences, University College London, Gower Street, London WC1E 6BT, UK
Sykes, J.Space Research Centre, Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Leicester, University Road, Leicester LE1 7RH, UK
Wells, N.QinetiQ Ltd., Cody Technology Park, Ively Road, Farnborough, Hampshire GU14 0LX, UK
Date:2011
Journal or Publication Title:Advances in Space Research
Refereed publication:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:48
DOI:10.1016/j.asr.2010.06.026
Page Range:pp. 725-742
Publisher:Elsevier Inc.
ISSN:0273-1177
Status:Published
Keywords:Penetrators, Europa, Astrobiology, EJSM
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W EW - Erforschung des Weltraums
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Vorhaben Planetenforschung (old)
Location: Berlin-Adlershof , Bremen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Space Systems
Institute of Planetary Research
Deposited By: Susanne Pieth
Deposited On:11 Jan 2011 10:09
Last Modified:12 Dec 2013 21:12

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