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Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions

Kerminen, V.-M. and Petäjä, T. and Manninen, H. E. and Paasonen, P. and Nieminen, T. and Sipilä, M. and Junninen, H. and Ehn, M. and Gagné, S. and Laakso, L. and Riipinen, I. and Vehkamäki, H. and Kurten, T. and Ortega, I. K. and Dal Maso, M. and Brus, D. and Hyvärinen, A. and Lihavainen, H. and Leppä, J. and Lehtinen, K. E. J. and Mirme, A. and Mirme, S. and Hõrrak, U. and Berndt, T. and Stratmann, F. and Birmili, W. and Wiedensohler, A. and Metzger, A. and Dommen, J. and Baltensperger, U. and Kiendler-Scharr, A. and Mentel, T. F. and Wildt, J. and Winkler, P. M. and Wagner, P. E. and Petzold, Andreas and Minikin, Andreas and Plass-Dülmer, C. and Pöschl, U. and Laaksonen, A. and Kulmala, M. (2010) Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 10, pp. 10829-10848. European Geosciences Union. DOI: 10.5194/acp-10-10829-2010. ISSN 1680-7316.

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Official URL: http://www.atmos-chem-phys.net/10/10829/2010/acp-10-10829-2010.html

Abstract

Within the project EUCAARI (European Integrated project on Aerosol Cloud Climate and Air Quality interactions), atmospheric nucleation was studied by (i) developing and testing new air ion and cluster spectrometers, (ii) conducting homogeneous nucleation experiments for sulphate and organic systems in the laboratory, (iii) investigating atmospheric nucleation mechanism under field conditions, and (iv) applying new theoretical and modelling tools for data interpretation and development of parameterisations. The current paper provides a synthesis of the obtained results and identifies the remaining major knowledge gaps related to atmospheric nucleation. The most important technical achievement of the project was the development of new instruments for measuring sub-3 nm particle populations, along with the extensive application of these instruments in both the laboratory and the field. All the results obtained during EUCAARI indicate that sulphuric acid plays a central role in atmospheric nucleation. However, also vapours other than sulphuric acid are needed to explain the nucleation and the subsequent growth processes, at least in continental boundary layers. Candidate vapours in this respect are some organic compounds, ammonia, and especially amines. Both our field and laboratory data demonstrate that the nucleation rate scales to the first or second power of the nucleating vapour concentration(s). This agrees with the few earlier field observations, but is in stark contrast with classical thermodynamic nucleation theories. The average formation rates of 2-nm particles were found to vary by almost two orders of magnitude between the different EUCAARI sites, whereas the formation rates of charged 2-nm particles varied very little between the sites. Overall, our observations are indicative of frequent, yet moderate, ion-induced nucleation usually outweighed by much stronger neutral nucleation events in the continental lower troposphere. The most concrete outcome of the EUCAARI nucleation studies are the new semi-empirical nucleation rate parameterizations based on field observations, along with updated aerosol formation parameterizations.

Document Type:Article
Title:Atmospheric nucleation: highlights of the EUCAARI project and future directions
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Kerminen, V.-M.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Petäjä, T.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Manninen, H. E.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Paasonen, P.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Nieminen, T.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Sipilä, M.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Junninen, H.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Ehn, M.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Gagné, S.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Laakso, L.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Riipinen, I.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Vehkamäki, H.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Kurten, T.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Ortega, I. K.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Dal Maso, M.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Brus, D.Research and Development, Helsinki, FIN
Hyvärinen, A.Research and Development, Helsinki, FIN
Lihavainen, H.Research and Development, Helsinki, FIN
Leppä, J.Research and Development, Helsinki, FIN
Lehtinen, K. E. J.Research and Development, Helsinki, FIN
Mirme, A.Univ. of Tartu, Tartu, EST
Mirme, S.Univ. of Tartu, Tartu, EST
Hõrrak, U.Univ. of Tartu, Tartu, EST
Berndt, T.IfT, Leipzig
Stratmann, F.IfT, Leipzig
Birmili, W.IfT, Leipzig
Wiedensohler, A.IfT, Leipzig
Metzger, A.PSI, Villigen, CH
Dommen, J.PSI, Villigen, CH
Baltensperger, U.PSI, Villigen, CH
Kiendler-Scharr, A.FZ Jülich
Mentel, T. F.FZ Jülich
Wildt, J.FZ Jülich
Winkler, P. M.Univ. Wien, A
Wagner, P. E.Univ. Wien, A
Petzold, AndreasDLR
Minikin, AndreasDLR
Plass-Dülmer, C.DWD, Hohenpeissenberg
Pöschl, U.MPI for Chemistry, Mainz
Laaksonen, A.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Kulmala, M.Univ. of Helsinki, FIN
Date:2010
Journal or Publication Title:Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics
Refereed publication:Yes
In Open Access:Yes
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:10
DOI:10.5194/acp-10-10829-2010
Page Range:pp. 10829-10848
Publisher:European Geosciences Union
ISSN:1680-7316
Status:Published
Keywords:EUCAARI, particle formation, particle nucleation, atmospheric aerosol
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)
HGF - Program:Space (old)
HGF - Program Themes:W EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Research area:Space
DLR - Program:W EO - Erdbeobachtung
DLR - Research theme (Project):W - Vorhaben Atmosphären- und Klimaforschung (old)
Location: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Atmospheric Physics > Atmospheric Trace Species
Deposited By: Dr.rer.nat. Andreas Minikin
Deposited On:06 Dec 2010 15:25
Last Modified:12 Dec 2013 21:08

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