Nagel, K. and Wagner, P. and Woesler, R. (2003) Still flowing: old and new approaches for traffic flow modeling. Operations Research, 51 (5), pp. 681-710.
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Certain aspects of traffic flow measurements imply the existence of a phase transition. Models known from chaos and fractals, such as non-linear analysis of coupled differential equations, cellular automata, or coupled maps, can generate behavior which indeed resembles a phase transition in the flow behavior. Other measurements point out that the same behavior could be generated by relatively simple geometrical constraints of the scenario. This paper looks at some of the empirical evidence, but mostly focuses on the different modelling approaches. The theory of traffic jam dynamics is reviewed in some detail, starting from the well-established theory of kinematic waves and then veering into the area of phase transitions. One aspect of the theory of phase transitions is that, by changing one single parameter, a system can be moved from displaying a phase transition to not displaying a phase transition. This implies that models for traffic can be tuned so that they display a phase transition or not. The paper focuses on microscopic modeling, discussing the approaches mentioned above, i.e. coupled differential equations, cellular automata, and coupled maps. The phase transition behavior of these models, as far as it is known, is discussed. Similarly, fluid-dynamical models for the same questions are considered. A large portion of the paper is given to the discussion of extensions and open questions, which makes clear that the question of traffic jam dynamics is, albeit important, only a small part of an interesting and vibrant field. As our outlook shows, the whole field is moving away from a rather static view of traffic towards a dynamic view, which uses simulation as an important tool.
|Title:||Still flowing: old and new approaches for traffic flow modeling|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Operations Research|
|In ISI Web of Science:||No|
|Page Range:||pp. 681-710|
|HGF - Research field:||Aeronautics, Space and Transport (old)|
|HGF - Program:||Transport|
|HGF - Program Themes:||other|
|DLR - Research area:||Transport|
|DLR - Program:||V VR - Verkehrsforschung|
|DLR - Research theme (Project):||UNSPECIFIED|
|Institutes and Institutions:||Institute of Transport Research|
|Deposited By:||elib DLR-Beauftragter|
|Deposited On:||16 Sep 2005|
|Last Modified:||06 Jan 2010 20:29|
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