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Scientific issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements

Shine, Keith P. und Berntsen, Terje K. und Fuglestvedt, Jan S. und Sausen, Robert (2005) Scientific issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements. Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS), 102, Seiten 15768-15773. DOI: 10.1073/pnas.0506865102.

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Offizielle URL: http://www.pnas.org/cgi/doi/0.1073/pnas.0506865102

Kurzfassung

The Kyoto Protocol seeks to limit emissions of various greenhouse gases but excludes short-lived species and their precursors even though they cause a significant climate forcing. We explore the difficulties that are faced when designing metrics to compare the climate impact of emissions of oxides of nitrogen (NO<sub>x</sub>) with other emissions. There are two dimensions to this difficulty. The first concerns the definition of a metric that satisfactorily accounts for its climate impact. NO<sub>x</sub> emissions increase tropospheric ozone, but this increase and the resulting climate forcing depend strongly on the location of the emissions, with low-latitude emissions having a larger impact. NO<sub>x</sub> emissions also decrease methane concentrations, causing a global-mean radiative forcing similar in size but opposite in sign to the ozone forcing. The second dimension of difficulty concerns the intermodel differences in the values of computed metrics. We explore the use of indicators that could lead to metrics that, instead of using global-mean inputs, are computed locally and then averaged globally. These local metrics may depend less on cancellation in the global mean; the possibilities presented here seem more robust to model uncertainty, although their applicability depends on the poorly known relationship between local climate change and its societal/ecological impact. If it becomes a political imperative to include NO<sub>x</sub> emissions in future climate agreements, policy makers will be faced with difficult choices in selecting an appropriate metric.

Dokumentart:Zeitschriftenbeitrag
Titel:Scientific issues in the design of metrics for inclusion of oxides of nitrogen in global climate agreements
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Shine, Keith P.Univ. of Reading, Reading, UK
Berntsen, Terje K.CICERO, Oslo, N
Fuglestvedt, Jan S.CICERO, Oslo, N
Sausen, RobertNICHT SPEZIFIZIERT
Datum:2005
Erschienen in:Proceedings of the National Academy of Science (PNAS)
Referierte Publikation:Ja
In Open Access:Nein
In SCOPUS:Ja
In ISI Web of Science:Ja
Band:102
DOI :10.1073/pnas.0506865102
Seitenbereich:Seiten 15768-15773
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:climate change, climate metrics, Kyoto Protocol
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Luftfahrt, Raumfahrt und Verkehr
HGF - Programm:Verkehr
HGF - Programmthema:V UR - Schonung von Umwelt und Ressourcen (alt)
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Verkehr
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:V UR - Schonung von Umwelt und Ressourcen
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):V - Umweltwirkungen des Verkehrs (alt)
Standort: Oberpfaffenhofen
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Physik der Atmosphäre > Dynamik der Atmosphäre
Hinterlegt von: Prof.Dr. Robert Sausen
Hinterlegt am:22 Feb 2007
Letzte Änderung:11 Nov 2014 21:56

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