Organ shielding and doses in Low-Earth orbit calculated for spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms
Matthia, Daniel and Berger, Thomas and Reitz, Günther (2013) Organ shielding and doses in Low-Earth orbit calculated for spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms. Advances in Space Research, 52 (3), pp. 528-535. Elsevier. DOI: 10.1016/j.asr.2013.03.025. ISSN 0273-1177.
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Humans in space are exposed to elevated levels of radiation compared to ground. Different sources contribute to the total exposure with galactic cosmic rays being the most important component. The application of numerical and anthropomorphic phantoms in simulations allows the estimation of dose rates from galactic cosmic rays in individual organs and whole body quantities such as the effective dose. The male and female reference phantoms defined by the International Commission on Radiological Protection and the hermaphrodite numerical RANDO phantom are voxel implementations of anthropomorphic phantoms and contain all organs relevant for radiation risk assessment. These anthropomorphic phantoms together with a spherical water phantom were used in this work to translate the mean shielding of organs in the different anthropomorphic voxel phantoms into positions in the spherical phantom. This relation allows using a water sphere as surrogate for the anthropomorphic phantoms in both simulations and measurements. Moreover, using spherical phantoms in the calculation of radiation exposure offers great advantages over anthropomorphic phantoms in terms of computational time. In this work, the mean shielding of organs in the different voxel phantoms exposed to isotropic irradiation is presented as well as the corresponding depth in a water sphere. Dose rates for Low-Earth orbit from galactic cosmic rays during solar minimum conditions were calculated using the different phantoms and are compared to the results for a spherical water phantom in combination with the mean organ shielding. For the spherical water phantom the impact of different aluminium shielding between 1 g/cm² and 100 g/cm² was calculated. The dose equivalent rates were used to estimate the effective dose rate.
|Title:||Organ shielding and doses in Low-Earth orbit calculated for spherical and anthropomorphic phantoms|
|Journal or Publication Title:||Advances in Space Research|
|In ISI Web of Science:||Yes|
|Page Range:||pp. 528-535|
|Keywords:||Shielding, Anthropomorphic phantom, Dosimetry, Radiation exposure, Organ dose, Galactic cosmic rays|
|HGF - Research field:||Aeronautics, Space and Transport|
|HGF - Program:||Raumfahrt|
|HGF - Program Themes:||Research under Space Conditions|
|DLR - Research area:||Raumfahrt|
|DLR - Program:||R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen|
|DLR - Research theme (Project):||R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie|
|Institutes and Institutions:||Institute of Aerospace Medicine > Radiation Biology|
|Deposited By:||Kerstin Kopp|
|Deposited On:||26 Aug 2013 12:00|
|Last Modified:||26 Aug 2013 12:00|
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