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Resistance of Bacterial Endospores to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes—Experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E Mission

Horneck, Gerda und Moeller, Ralf und Cadet, Jean und Douki, Thierry und Mancinelli, Rocco L. und Nicholson, Wayne L. und Panitz, Corinna und Rabbow, Elke und Rettberg, Petra und Spry, Andrew und Stackebrandt, Erko und Vaishampayan, Parag und Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. (2012) Resistance of Bacterial Endospores to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes—Experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E Mission. Astrobiology, 12 (5), Seiten 445-456. Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.. DOI: 10.1089/ast.2011.0737.

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Kurzfassung

Spore-forming bacteria are of particular concern in the context of planetary protection because their tough endospores may withstand certain sterilization procedures as well as the harsh environments of outer space or planetary surfaces. To test their hardiness on a hypothetical mission to Mars, spores of Bacillus subtilis 168 and Bacillus pumilus SAFR-032 were exposed for 1.5 years to selected parameters of space in the experiment PROTECT during the EXPOSE-E mission on board the International Space Station. Mounted as dry layers on spacecraft-qualified aluminum coupons, the ‘‘trip to Mars’’ spores experienced space vacuum, cosmic and extraterrestrial solar radiation, and temperature fluctuations, whereas the ‘‘stay on Mars’’ spores were subjected to a simulated martian environment that included atmospheric pressure and composition, and UV and cosmic radiation. The survival of spores from both assays was determined after retrieval. It was clearly shown that solar extraterrestrial UV radiation (λ ≥ 110 nm) as well as the martian UV spectrum (λ ≥ 200 nm) was the most deleterious factor applied; in some samples only a few survivors were recovered from spores exposed in monolayers. Spores in multilayers survived better by several orders of magnitude. All other environmental parameters encountered by the ‘‘trip to Mars’’ or ‘‘stay on Mars’’ spores did little harm to the spores, which showed about 50% survival or more. The data demonstrate the high chance of survival of spores on a Mars mission, if protected against solar irradiation. These results will have implications for planetary protection considerations.

Dokumentart:Zeitschriftenbeitrag
Titel:Resistance of Bacterial Endospores to Outer Space for Planetary Protection Purposes—Experiment PROTECT of the EXPOSE-E Mission
Autoren:
AutorenInstitution oder E-Mail-Adresse der Autoren
Horneck, Gerda Radiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
Moeller, RalfRadiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
Cadet, Jean Laboratoire ‘‘Lésions des Acides Nucléiques’’, SCIB-UMR-E n°3 (CEA/UJF), Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA/Grenoble, Grenoble, France
Douki, Thierry Laboratoire ‘‘Lésions des Acides Nucléiques’’, SCIB-UMR-E n°3 (CEA/UJF), Institut Nanosciences et Cryogénie, CEA/Grenoble, Grenoble, France
Mancinelli, Rocco L. Bay Area Environmental Research Institute, NASA Ames Research Center, Moffett Field, California, USA.
Nicholson, Wayne L. Department of Microbiology and Cell Science, University of Florida, Space Life Sciences Laboratory, Kennedy Space Center, Florida, USA.
Panitz, Corinna Institut für Flugmedizin, Technical University RWTH, Aachen, Germany.
Rabbow, Elke Radiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
Rettberg, Petra Radiation Biology Department, Institute of Aerospace Medicine, German Aerospace Center (DLR), Cologne, Germany.
Spry, Andrew Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
Stackebrandt, Erko German Collection of Microorganisms and Cell Cultures GmbH (DSMZ), Braunschweig, Germany.
Vaishampayan, Parag Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
Venkateswaran, Kasthuri J. Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, California, USA.
Datum:2012
Erschienen in:Astrobiology
Referierte Publikation:Ja
In SCOPUS:Ja
In ISI Web of Science:Ja
Band:12
DOI :10.1089/ast.2011.0737
Seitenbereich:Seiten 445-456
Verlag:Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.
Status:veröffentlicht
Stichwörter:Planetary protection, Bacterial spores, Space experiment, Simulated Mars mission
HGF - Forschungsbereich:Luftfahrt, Raumfahrt und Verkehr
HGF - Programm:Raumfahrt
HGF - Programmthema:Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Schwerpunkt:Raumfahrt
DLR - Forschungsgebiet:R FR - Forschung unter Weltraumbedingungen
DLR - Teilgebiet (Projekt, Vorhaben):R - Vorhaben Strahlenbiologie
Standort: Köln-Porz
Institute & Einrichtungen:Institut für Luft- und Raumfahrtmedizin > Strahlenbiologie
Hinterlegt von: Kerstin Kopp
Hinterlegt am:09 Aug 2012 08:35
Letzte Änderung:18 Jul 2014 00:20

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