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Flight Simulator Study on the Influence of Vortex Curvature on Wake Encounter Hazard using LES Wind Fields

Vechtel, Dennis (2012) Flight Simulator Study on the Influence of Vortex Curvature on Wake Encounter Hazard using LES Wind Fields. The Aeronautical Journal, Volume 116 (1177).

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Abstract

A flight simulator study has been carried out to evaluate the performance of modern flight control systems encountering curved wake vortices. During the decay process the shape of wake vortices alters significantly which has an influence on the encounter characteristics and thus on the encounter hazard. To analyse most realistic wake encounters, flow fields of matured vortices have been generated with large-eddy-simulations. These were used for the determination of induced force and moment histories during the encounter. The force and moment histories have been implemented into the equations of motions of a 6 DoF flight simulation. For the sake of comparison encounters have also been simulated with straight vortices as they were mostly used for many other investigations. The most important goal of the study was to analyse the difference between these ideally straight vortices and vortices with a more realistic shape regarding encounter acceptance. The simulator study was conducted in an A330 motion-based full-flight simulator with pilots-in-the-loop. The analysed scenario was a wake encounter during final approach. The encounter conditions corresponded to a heavy-behind-heavy situation for Instrument Flight Rules (IFR) operations. The aircraft was flown either manually (in normal law) or with autopilot engaged. Altogether 93 encounters have been simulated, 38 with straight and 55 encounters with curved vortices. For encounters under manual control the simulator study revealed a potential risk of pilot induced oscillations (PIO) during encounters with curved vortices. With autopilot engaged not even one encounter with curved vortices was classified to be unacceptable. Although significant aircraft response was experienced the autopilot never disengaged automatically in any encounter. Altogether about 12 percent of the encounters were not accepted by the pilots. This is indeed a significant number, especially as the analysed scenarios can be regarded to be realistic situations which can occur in reality even if the applicable separation distances are applied.

Document Type:Article
Title:Flight Simulator Study on the Influence of Vortex Curvature on Wake Encounter Hazard using LES Wind Fields
Authors:
AuthorsInstitution or Email of Authors
Vechtel, DennisFT-FS
Date:March 2012
Journal or Publication Title:The Aeronautical Journal
Refereed publication:Yes
In Open Access:No
In SCOPUS:Yes
In ISI Web of Science:Yes
Volume:Volume 116
Status:Published
Keywords:Wake Encounter, Vortex Curvature, Hazard Assessment, Full-Flight-Simulator, Large-Eddy-Simulation
HGF - Research field:Aeronautics, Space and Transport
HGF - Program:Aeronautics
HGF - Program Themes:other
DLR - Research area:Aeronautics
DLR - Program:L - no assignement
DLR - Research theme (Project):L -- no assignement
Location: Braunschweig
Institutes and Institutions:Institute of Flight Systems > Flight Dynamics and Simulation
Deposited By: Tanja Bracke
Deposited On:29 May 2012 13:41
Last Modified:07 Feb 2013 20:45

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